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Chapter 6 Skeletal

OsseosTissue and Bone Structure

QuestionAnswer
Primary Functions of the Skeletal System Support and Frame Work, Storage of Minerals and Lipids, Blood Cell Production, Protection, Leverage
Bone Shapes Long Bone, Flat Bone, Sutural Bone, Irregular Bone, Short Bones, and Sesamoid.
Surface features that can yield an abundance of anatomical information. Bone Markings
Extended Tubular Shaft on a long bone Diaphysis
Expanded end of a long bone Epiphysis
Narrow zone between the Epiphysis and The Diaphysis Metaphysis
Marrow Cavity Medullary
Thin layer of compact bone covering spongy bone. Cortex
Crystals formed by Calcium phosphate and Calcium Hydroxide hydroxyapatite
Mature bones cells that occupy the Lacuna. Maintain protein and mineral content of surrounding matrix and participating in the repair of damaged bone. Osteocytes
Layers of bone matrix that contain lacuna and oseocytes Lamellae
Narrow passageways through the matrix, extended between the lacunae and nearby blood vessels, forming a branching network for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases Canaliculi
Immature bone cells that secrete organic components of matrix. Osteoblasts
Process in which Osteoblasts create new bone matrix Osteogenesis
Matrix before calcium salts are deposited Osteoid
Stem Cells whose division creates osteoblasts Osteoprogenitor
Multi nucleated cell that secretes acid and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix. Osteoclasts
Erosion process, conducted by the osteoclasts, that resolves the bone matrix and releases stored minerals (Important in the regulation of calcium and phosphate). Osteolysis
Basic function unit of mature compact bone. Osteocytes are arranged in a concentric layer around a central canal. Osteon or Halverson System
Structure of Spongy bone. Matrix arranged in struts and plates. Trabeculae
Found between trabeculae of spongy bone. Within the epiphysis of long bones and the interior of other bones such as the sternum and ilium. Responsible for Blood Cell formation. Red Bone Marrow
Spongy bone that contains adipose tissue an important energy reserve. Yellow Bone Marrow
Except within join cavities, a superficial layer that covers all compact bone. Periosteum
An incomplete cellular layer that lines the medullary cavities. Endosteum
The process of replacing other tissue with bones.. Ossification
The deposition of calcium salts. Calcification
Process where cartilage models are gradually converted to bone. Endochondral Ossification
The site where the bone development begins. Primary Ossification Center
Created during step 5 of the Endochondral Ossification process. The center of the epiphyses begin to calcify, and capillaries and osteoblasts migrate to area. Secondary Ossification Center
Cartilage that prevents damaging bone to bone contact within the joint. Articular Cartilage
A narrow cartilaginous region that that separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis. Epiphyseal Cartilage or Epiphyseal Plate
In adults, this is the formal location of the epiphyseal Cartilage. Epiphyseal Line
Process where cells of the inner layer of the periosteum differentiate into osteoblast and deposit superficial layers of bone matrix. Appositional Growth
Process where osteoblasts differentiate within a mesenchymal or fibrous connective tissue. The bones that result from this process are called dermal bones. Intramembranous Ossification
Bones that result from Intramembranous Ossification Dermal Bones
The location in a tissue where ossification begins. Ossification Center
Small struts that grow outward from the ossification center. Spicules
The process where organic and mineral components of the bone matrix are continuously being recycled and renewed. Remodeling
Kidneys. Promotes calcium and ion absorption along the digestive tract. Calcitriol
Pituitary Gland, Stimulates osteoblast activity and synthesis of bone matrix. Growth Hormone
Thyroid Gland. With Growth Hormone, Stimulates osteoblast activity and synthesis of bone matrix. Thyroxine
Estrogens/ Androgens. Stimulates osteoblast activity and synthesis of bone matrix. Sex hormones
Parathyroid Gland. Stimulates Osteoclast (and Osteoblast) activity; elevates calcium ion concentrations in body fluids. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Thyroid Gland (C cells) Inhibits osteoclast activity; promotes calcium loss at the kidneys; reduces calcium ion concentrations in body fluids. Calcitonin
Crack or break resulting from extreme loads, sudden impacts , or stresses from unusual directions. Fracture
Large blood clot resulting from a fracture. Fracture Hematoma
Enlarged collar of cartilage and bone that encircles the bone at the level of the fracture. External Callus
Organizes within the medullary cavities from the result of a fracture. Internal Callus
Inadequate ossification Osteopenia
Condition in which the reduction of bone mass is sufficient to compromise normal function. Osteporosis
Dense bone containing a structure of osteons and lamellae Compact Bone
Cancellous or Trabecular bone found in the epiphysis Spongy Bone
Runs parallel to the surface of the bone. Contains one or more blood vessels that carries blood to and from the osteon. Central Canal or Haversian Canal
Occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of the leg. Pott Fracture
Type of fracture that shatter the affected area into a multitude of bony fragments. Comminuted Fracture
Type of fracture that breaks the bone shaft across its long axis Transverse Fracture
Fractures that are produced by twisting stresses that spread alonf the length of the bone. Spiral Fracture
Fractures: A.)produces new and abnormal bone arrangements. B.) retains the normal alignment of the bones or fragments Displaced Fractures/ Nondisplaced
A break in the distal portion of the radius, is typically the result of reaching out to cushion a fall. Colles Fracture
Fracture where only one side for the shaft is broken, and the other is bent. This fracture generally occurs in children, whose long bones have yet to ossify fully. Greenstick Fracture
Fracture that occurs where the bone matrix is undergoing calcification and chondrocytes are dying. A clean traverse fracture along these lines heals well. fractures between the epiphysis and the epiphyseal cartilage can perm. stop growth at site. Epiphyseal Fracture
Fracture that occurs in vertebrae subjected to extreme stresses. Compression Fracture
Created by: Rsuding1