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Molecular Genetics

DNA replication process in which chromosomal DNA is copied before mitosis or meiosis.
Double helix shape of a DNA molecule formed when two twisted DNA strands are coiled into a springlike structure and held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases.
Nitrogenous base carbon ring structure found in DNA or RNA that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen: includes adenine,guanine,cytosine,,thymine,and uracil.
Codon set of three nitrogenous bases that represents an amino acid: order of nitrogenous bases in mRNA determines the type and order of amino acids in a protein
mRNA RNA that transports information from DNA in in the nucleus to the cell's cytoplasm
rRNA RNA that makes up the ribosomes: clamps onto mRNA and uses its information to assemble amino acids in the correct order.
Transcript process in the cell nucleus where enzymes make a RNA copy of a DNA strand.
tRNA RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosomes
Translation process of converting information in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein.
Chromosomal mutation mutation that occurs at the chromosome level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis; caused when parts of chromosomes break off or rejoin incorrectly.
Frameshift mutation mutation that occurs when a single base is added or deleted from DNA; causes a shift in the reading of codons by one base.
Mutagen any agent that can cause a change in DNA; includes high energy radiation, chemicals,or high temperatures.
Mutation any change or random error in a DNA sequence.
Point Mutation mutation in a DNA sequence; occurs from a change in a single base pair.
Clone genetically identical copies of an organism or gene.
Gene splicing in recombinant DNA technology, the rejoining of DNA fragments by vectors and other enzymes.
Genetic engineering method of cutting DNA from one organism and inserting the DNA fragment into a host organism of the same or a different species.
Plasmid small ring of DNA found in bacterial cell that is used as a biological vector.
Recombinant DNA DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different sources.
Restriction enzymes DNA-cutting enzymes that can cut both strands of a DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence.
Transgenic organism organisms that contains functional recombinant DNA from a different organism.
Vector means by which DNA form another species can be carried into the host cell; may be biological or mechanical.
Gene therapy insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders.
Human genome map of the approximately 80 000 genes of 46 human chromosomes that when mapped and sequenced,may provide information on the treatment or cure of genetic disorders.
Linkage map genetic map that shows the location of genes on a chromosome.
Created by: Ycastro5614
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