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Physiology

Chapter 1 - 6

TermDefinition
Pathogenesis The course of disease development.
What is another name for Intrinsic control and what do they do? Autoregulation. Intrinsic control mechanisms operate at the tissue and organ levels.
Shivering to try to raise your body temperature back to normal is a part of what? The body trying to maintain homeostasis and a negative-feedback mechanism.
Uterine Contractions are a part of what type of feedback mechanism? Positive.
What are the basic components in a feedback loop control? Sensor, Effector Mechanism, Feedback and Integrating Center.
What do negative feedback systems do? They oppose a change Maintain homeostasis, Responsible for an increased rate of sweating when air temperature is higher than body temperature. and maintain changed in blood glucose levels.
What is homeostasis? The state of relative constancy
What is another name for the normal range or normal reading? Set point
Which body system is the least involved in maintaining homeostasis? The Reproductive System
What do positive feed back systems do? They accelerate a change It does not operate to help the body maintain a stable, or homeostatic, condition, it is often harmful, even disastrous, to survival.
Where is the body's thermostat located? Hypothalamus
Effectors can be described as organs that directly influence controlled physiological variables.
Events that lead to an immune response to an infection or the formation of a blood clot are examples of positive feedback
The impact of effector activity on sensors may be positive or negative. Therefore, homeostatic control mechanisms are categorized as organs that are directly influenced by physiological variables or mechanisms.
What term describes a signal traveling toward a particular center or point of reference? afferent
What term describes a signal traveling away from a particular center or point of reference? efferent
Circadian cycles are : The body naturally changes some set points to different values at different times of the day. These daily cycles are called
Processes for maintaining or restoring homeostasis are known as homeostatic control mechanisms.
Feed-forward is ... The concept that information may flow ahead to another process to trigger a change in anticipation of an event that will follow is called
_________________ operate at the cell level. These mechanisms regulate functions within the cell, often by means of genes and enzymes. Intracellular control mechanisms
What is ATP is the form of energy that cells generally use.
Which term means “water loving” and applies to the phospholipid head? hydrophilic
Proteins are polymers of amino acids.
Proteins have four elements which are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Functional group is the term is often used to describe certain arrangements of atoms attached to the carbon core of many organic molecules.
A lipid is the following A fat, cholosterol, and a steroid.
RNA and DNA have the same pyrimidine bases but different purine bases. true
Glycogen is a polymer of glucose that is sometimes referred to as animal starch.
Prostaglandin. The lipid that is often referred to as a tissue hormone
A triglyceride is composed of a glycerol molecule and three of the same type of fatty acid. False
When two amino acids are joined, a peptide bond is formed and an H+ ion is released. False
The most important monosaccharide Glucose
The carbon-containing molecules formed by living things are often called Organic molecules.
Any large molecule made up of many identical small molecules is called a(n) Polymer.
A very large molecule composed of subunits of sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate bond is a Nucleic acid.
What determines how a protein performs? It's shape
Humans can synthesize 13 of 21 basic amino acids; the remaining 8, which must be included in the diet, are called: essential amino acids.
A structural lipid found in the cell membrane is a: Phospholipid and a Steriod.
When two molecules of glucose are joined, they form which disaccharide? Maltose
The type of lipoprotein associated with “bad” cholesterol and the production of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels is: LDL.
The type of lipoprotein associated with “good” cholesterol and is not associated with the production of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels is: HDL.
All of the following substances are organic Lipids, Carbohydrates and Proteins.
Dehydration synthesis is the formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water
The types of lipids found that form hormones, such as cortisone, estrogen, and testosterone are Steroids
Which energy-releasing or energy-transferring molecule does not contain a nucleotide? Creatine phosphate
What is the most important factor in determining the physical and chemical properties of fatty acids? Degree of saturation
A _____ is a functional group that is temporarily unattached and is highly reactive because of unpaired electrons. free radical
The element that is present in all proteins but not in carbohydrates is: Nitrogen
Meiosis is called “reduction division” because the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
Normal mitosis results in cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell.
Water will move through the cell membrane by osmosis.
A molecule or other agent that alters enzyme function by changing its shape is called a(n) allosteric effector.
The site of transcription is within the nucleus, whereas the site of translation is in the cytoplasm. True
Filtration is the physical process by which water and solute move through a membrane when a hydrostatic pressure gradient exists across the membrane.
Materials can be moved from a low concentration to a high concentration through: active transport.
The result of meiosis is four daughter cells that are haploid.
Transcription and translation are The two processes of protein synthesis
The following occur as a result of meiosis chromosome number remains at 46. primitive sex cells become mature gametes. meiosis occurs in two steps.
RNA makes proteins by translation.
Which skin layer contains closely packed, clear cells that contain a gel-like substance called eleidin? Stratum lucidum
Which skin layer is called the barrier area? Stratum corneum
Fingernail growth is the result of the mitosis of the cells in the stratum: germinativum.
The hair follicle is found in the Dermis.
Apocrine sweat glands can be found in all of the following areas armpits, areolae of the breasts, pigmented skin areas around the anus.
The hair papilla consists of _____ tissue. dermal
Smooth muscles that produce goose pimples when they contract are the _____ muscles. arrector pili
The nail body forms at the nail root, which has a matrix of proliferating cells from the _____________ that enables the nail to grow continuously. stratum basale
Secretion the following epithelial functions is a primary activity of glandular epithelium
Which cells electrically insulate axons to increase the speed of conduction? Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells
Which tissue is most likely to form a keloid scar as it heals? Connective
Mucous membranes are important because they lubricate and protect passageways. True
In what area of the body would you expect to find an especially thick stratum corneum? Sole of the foot
Of the five epidermal cell layers, the only one that can undergo mitosis is the stratum: basale
Which cells help destroy pathogens and damaged tissue in the brain? Microglia
A tissue is: a group of similar cells that perform a common function.
The area referred to as true skin is the: dermis
Why is cartilage slow to heal? because it is semi-solid and flexible because endochondral ossification replaces all cartilage with bone
Which of the following bones is (are) formed by intramembranous ossification? the flat bones of the cranium
Bones grow in length due to activity in the ________ epiphyseal plate
Bones grow in diameter due to bone formation ________ In the endosteum or periosteum
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of zones in the epiphyseal plate? calcification, maturation, proliferation, reserved
In endochondral ossification, what happens to the chondrocytes? They die in the calcified matrix that surrounds them and form the medullary cavity.
Adipocytes, found in the yellow bone marrow, stores and releases ____________________________ for energy. fat and triglycerides
Which function of the skeletal system would be especially important if you were in a car accident? protection of internal organs
Which subtype of fibrous joints is found only in the skull? suture
Which type of movement occurs between the carpal and tarsal bones and between the articular facets of adjoining spinal vertebrae? gliding
According to the sliding filament theory actin moves past myosin.
Joints joined by fibrocartilage are called symphyses.
The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract is called the threshold stimulus.
Three phases of the twitch contraction are the latent period, contraction phase, and relaxation phase.
Anaerobic respiration results in the formation of an incompletely catabolized molecule called lactate .
Which of the following is an example of a uniaxial joint? elbow joint
The energy required for muscular contraction is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP
The contractile unit of a muscle cell is the sarcomere
Created by: monique.