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Historical Figures

Non-US leaders/monarchs/politicians/etc through end of 1900's

PRIME MINISTER: dismantled India's policy of state control over the economy called the License Raj; economist and first Sikh prime minister of India Manmohan SINGH
KING: signed one of the earliest peace treaties in history with Hattusili III at Kadesh; fought the Hittites in a massive chariot battle in 1274 BC; Egyptian ruler of the 19th dynasty RAMSES II or RAMSES THE GREAT or OZYMANDIAS
EMPEROR: crushed Mack von Leiberich's forces at the Battle of Ulm; after Alexander I and Francis II, was the third emperor in the Battle of the Three Emperors, another name for the Battle of Austerlitz which he won in 1805 NAPOLEAN BONAPARTE (either part is good)
RULER: called First Council of Nicaea, which produced Nicene Creed; Lorenzo Valla debunked idea that this man transferred authority to the Pope in a namesake "donation"; first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity CONSTANTINE (the first or the great, not needed)
LEADER: placed exploited nations in the bottom-most tier of his Three Worlds Theory; ordered villages to construct smelting facilities to produce low-grade steel during the Great Leap Forward; began Cultural Revolution MAO Zedong
KING: to signify personal sovereignty, he changed his official title to use "of" instead of "in"; this Hohenzollern annexed and retained Silesia in the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War; "enlightened despot" FREDERICK the Great or FREDERICK II of Prussia
PRIME MINISTER: the only UK prime minister to be assassinated Spencer PERCEVAL
PRIME MINISTER: the first UK prime minister Robert WALPOLE
PRIME MINISTER: the surname of two UK prime ministers known as the "Elder" and the "Younger"; namesake of Pennsylvania city William PITT
PRESIDENT: helped to found the Fifth Republic, the latest incarnation of France's government Charles DE GAULLE
EMPEROR: killed following the Battle of Cajamarca even though he paid the Spanish a ransom of almost eight tons of gold; Incan emperor ATAHUALPA (ah-tah-WALL-puh)
PRIME MINISTER: British man who promised "peace for our time" after signing the Munich Agreement of 1938 Neville CHAMBERLAIN
PRIME MINISTER: suspended most elections in 1975 by declaring "The Emergency"; ordered Operation Blue Star, which sent troops into the Golden Temple at Amritsar; assassinated in 1984 by Sikh nationalists; female prime minister of India Indira GANDHI (need at least the "I" from the first name, or prompt)
LEADER: before winning Battle of Junin, met a rival at the Guayaquil Conference; his subordinate Antonio Jose de Sucre served as president of a country named for him; "Liberator" who led national independence movements in South America Simon BOLIVAR
POLITICIAN: in a book, he rips up Milady de Winter's letter of pardon; known as the "Red Eminence" in real life; in fiction, gives promotion to D'Artagnan at the end of The Three Musketeers; clergyman who became Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624 Cardinal RICHELIEU (re-shel-YOO)
PRESIDENT: known as "Uncle" Ho; led Viet Minh independence movement; Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1945 to 1955 and president from 1945 to 1969; Saigon renamed to his "City" HO CHI MINH
PRESIDENT: Vladimir Putin was his prime minister from 1999 to 2000; first man to serve as president of Russia when post was created in 1991 Boris YELTSIN
EMPEROR: had a collar of gemstones made for his horse Incitatus; name refers to "little boots" he wore while fighting barbarians in modern-day Germany; succeeded by Claudius after being assassinated by guards in AD 41; third Roman Emperor CALIGULA or GAIUS CAESAR
LEADER: his government was opposed by nobles who used slogan "sonno joi"; during his government's Bakumatsu period, its sakoku isolationist policy ended after Matthew Perry's squadron arrived in Edo; led final Japanese shogunate TOKUGAWA Ieyasu (Meiji Restoration followed)
KING: first Norman King of England; his most famous battle depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry; defeated Harold Godwinson to win Battle of Hastings in 1066 WILLIAM THE CONQUERER
EMPEROR: monarch who sent sorcerer Xu Fu to find Anqi Sheng's elixir of life; after triumphing over Warring States, promoted his doctrine of legalism through mass book burnings; his tomb included the Terracotta Army; first emperor of unified China Qin SHI HUANG (chin shur hwahng) or SHI HUANGDI
REVOLUTIONARY: defeated Andre Rigaud in the War of Knives; former slave whose revolution against French rule led to the independence of Haiti Toussaint LOUVERTURE
KING: Virginia settlement of Middle Plantation was renamed to honor this Prince of Orange; installed on the English throne by the Glorious Revolution WILLIAM III or WILLIAM OF ORANGE (prompt on William)
KING: "Second Grand Alliance" opposed him and his grandson in the War of the Spanish Succession; converted hunting lodge into a residence containing the Hall of Mirrors; created Versailles palace and was called the "Sun King" LOUIS XIV (the 14th...prompt on Louis)
EMPEROR: depicted wearing an orange cloak in a painting of him "crossing the Alps" created by Jacque-Louis David; won 1805 Battle of the Three Emperors, or Austerlitz; defeated at Battle of Waterloo NAPOLEAN BONAPARTE (either part) or NAPOLEAN I
TITLE: until he died, Louis XVI's young son Louis-Charles bore this French title as heir apparent to the throne DAUPHIN (doh-FAN) of France
EMPEROR: first emperor of his name; targeted in failed Decembrist revolt; Russian NICHOLAS I
EMPEROR: issued the October Manifesto in response to a 1905 revolution that included Bloody Sunday; overthrown by the Bolsheviks in 1917 NICHOLAS II
PRESIDENT: ordered 342 prisoners killed at the Goliad Massacre; captured after the Battle of San Jacinto by soldiers seeking revenge for this man's army killing Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett; won 1836 Battle of the Alamo Antonio Lopez de SANTA ANNA
PRIME MINISTER: nearly killed in the Brighton hotel bombing of 1984; Conservative; known as the "Iron Lady" Margaret THATCHER
LEADER: his 1959 trip to Disneyland was cancelled for security reasons; U-2 incident led him to walk out of the Paris Four Powers summit; once banged his shoe on a desk to protest a UN speech; liberalized the USSR Nikita KHRUSHCHEV
RELIGIOUS LEADER: wrote "I bless all of you from my heart" on becoming first person to tweet from the @Pontifex account; "emeritus" was appended to his title after he announced surprise resignation; preceded Francis Pope BENEDICT XVI (16th)
LEADER: he was in a car on a drive to Appel Quay to visit victims of a bombing when he was assassinated in 1914; killed by a member of the Black Hand named Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist; his death sparked WWI Archduke FRANZ FERDINAND
EMPEROR: Mughal who built the Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his wife Muntaz; father of Aurangzeb SHAH JAHAN (juh-HAHN...need both parts)
RELIGIOUS LEADER: canonized in 2016; founded Missionaries of Charity; gained fame for work with the poor in the Indian city of Calcutta MOTHER TERESA (need both parts)
KING: established short-lived empire after defeating King Rim-Sin I of Larsa; sun god Shamash credited with giving this king a text whose philosophy is summarized as "an eye for an eye"; Babylonian HAMMURABI (references Code of Hammurabi)
MONARCH: succeeded Vasili III; his oprichniki secret police committed a 1570 massacre in Novgorod IVAN THE TERRIBLE or IVAN IV (4th)
POLITICIAN: formed League of the Three Emperors and the Triple Alliance; after 20 years in office, this Prussian was dismissed by Kaiser Wilhelm II; "Iron Chancellor" Otto von BISMARCK
LEADER: blamed weak federal government and 1812 earthquake for the failure of Francisco de Miranda's republic in a manifesto written from Cartagena; won Battle of Caraboro, which led to formation of Gran Colombia; "Liberator" Simon BOLIVAR
ROYAL: supposedly dressed as an Amazon while taking part in Second Crusade; after her marriage to Louis VII was annulled, she married the duke of Normandy who later became king of England, Henry II; duchess ELEANOR of Aquitaine
DICTATOR: ordered Caravan of Death which killed at least 70 people in 1973; took power in a coup that overthrew Salvador Allende; Chilean Augusto PINOCHET
RELIGIOUS LEADER: vowed to Saint Anne after nearly being struck by lightning caused him to leave law school and enter theology; summoned at 1521 Diet of Worms after lambasting sale of indulgences; initiated Protestant Reformation Martin LUTHER
KING: first king of England from the House of Stuart JAMES I of England, previously JAMES VI of Scotland
DICTATOR: he rose to power in the 1930s during the Spanish Civil War Francisco FRANCO
EMPEROR: his finance minister was killed in the League of Blood incident; his Jewel Voice Broadcast announced his nation's surrender following Bockscar dropping "Little Boy" on Nagasaki HIROHITO (or SHOWA Emperor)
KING: Civil Constitution of the Clergy was passed during his reign; group known as "the Mountain" supported killing him; in the flight to Varennes, he tried to escape with Marie Antionette; executed in French Revolution LOUIS XVI (16th)
KING: led English forces in the Third Crusade; nicknamed the Lionheart RICHARD III or RICHARD THE LIONHEART (before it would be read)
EMPEROR: Holy Roman Emperor who sent the German forces on the Third Crusade; name means "red beard" Frederick BARBAROSSA
EMPEROR: his son and successor went mad after killing the Apis bull; not a Mede, but founded an empire that used governors called satraps; released captive Jews after conquering Babylon; first sovereign of Persian empire CYRUS THE GREAT or CYRUS II
LEADER: In Dante's Inferno, two traitors who stabbed him are endlessly chewed upon by Satan; his ghost warns "thou shalt see me at Philippi" in a Shakespeare tragedy; killed on Ides of March JULIUS CAESAR
Created by: mjcrispjr



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