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Physical Dysfunction

Chapter 22: Vision

What is visual perception? Vision and information from other senses are integrated and interpreted by the brain to form a visual image of the environment
What is dynamic and constantly changing and human response is based on experiences? Vision
True or False? Vision and visual perception work together? True
What is Visual acuity? Discrimination of detail and contrast
What are corrected with Rx glasses? Astigmatism
20/20 Vision is considered normal for human vision
20/40 Vision is considered half that acuity for human vision
20/10 Vision is considered twice that acuity for human vision
20/200 Vision or less is considered “Legally Blind” for human vision with eyeglasses
What is Visual acuity? Visual information is sharp, clear, and accurate
What is Oculomotor control? Control of eye movements
What is Visual field? Visual field loss results in narrowing of the scope of scanning and person is unaware of the absence of vision
What is Visual scanning? Shifting attention from one visual target to another in smooth succession
What is Pattern recognition? Ability to distinguish an object from its surroundings
What is Visual memory? Create and retain a visual image
What is Visual cognition? Manipulate visual information mentally and integrate it with other sensory information (serves as a foundation for all learning)
Deficits in primary visual function? Complex interaction between optical system and CNS processing
What is Myopia? Near-sightedness
What is Hyperopia? Far-sightedness
What is Presbyopia? Far-sightedness associated with aging
What is Astigmatism? Variations in curvature of the cornea
What is Cataracts? Result in gradual, painless loss of vision
What is Age-related macular degeneration? Leading cause of loss of central vision for older adults
Age-related macular degeneration symptoms? Reduces the ability to distinguish details and color Dry 90% or Wet 10% type No cure
Macular degeneration? Most common diagnosis of low vision in people over 55
What is Macula? Macula is part of retina responsible for detailed vision
What is Macula used for? Macula used for reading, driving, recognition, and fine work
What is Glaucoma? Second-leading cause of blindness that is loss of peripheral vision
What is Open-angle glaucoma? Most common, occurs slowly
What is Closed-angle glaucoma? Sudden painful onset
How is Glaucoma treated? Treatable with life-long use of eyedrops, surgery, and medication Vision already lost is permanent
What is diabetic retinopathy? Starts with floaters; progresses to blurred vision and visual loss Laser surgery can be an effective treatment
What are some compensatory strategies to adapt? 1. Use of contrast 2. Increase light for better illumination 3. Reduce glare and minimize shadows 4. Use of solid background colors 5. Increase print size 6. Space objects further apart
What is Homonymous hemianopsia? Loss of the right or left half of the visual field in each eye; common after a CVA
What are some treatment strategies for visual field deficit? 1. Teach head movement for compensation 2. Special lenses may help with compensation 3. Reading: use of boundary markers; teaching head and eye movement 4. Environment: add color contrast, solid backgrounds; reduce clutter
What are the 2 categories of Visual attention? 1. Focused 2. Ambient
What is Visual attention (focused) ? Selective visual attention that are used for structured tasks
What is Visual attention (ambient) ? Peripheral visual attention that are more useful in unstructured tasks
Visual scanning is disrupted by what? Brain injury
What is Visual inattention? Visual neglect
Visual inattention is also called (3)? 1. Left unilateral spatial neglect 2. Hemi-inattention 3. Hemispatial neglect
Visual inattention primarily occurs where? Right side of the brain
What happens with (right) pattern recognition? Client fails to recognize any object because he or she does not perceive all of it
What happens with (left) pattern recognition? Client is aware of the object but cannot identify it
Visual Pattern (right injury) Client fails to recognize any object because he or she does not perceive all of it
Visual Pattern (left injury) Client is aware of the object but cannot identify it
Created by: Genevadarcius