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400 review west med

5 branches, 400 review class western med definitions

Epidermis Outer layer of skin, thick on hands and feet
Dermis Second layer of skin, living tissue with nerve, hair, glands, vessles etc
Hypodermis Subcutaneous tissue, loose connective and adipose tissue
Suddriferous gland produce sweat
sebaceous gland produce oil
Lunula base of nail where grows
1st degree burn red skin, hyperesthesia (acute sensory stimuli)
2nd degree burn Epi and dermis damage: blisters, no scar
3rd degree burn Epi and dermis destroyed: connective tissue damage, waxy charred skin, insensitive to touch, scar tissue
furuncle bac infection of hair folicle or sweat gland
carbuncle several furuncles
cellulitis acute infection of the skin and subQ tissue (heat, red, pain, swelling)
Ecchymosis Skin discoloration (bruise)
Eczema Acute or chronic skin inflamation 0erythma, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, posssible itching)
Erythema red skin by swelling of the capilaries (sunburn, blushing)
Keratosis thckened epidermis (callus, wart)
Petechia pinpoint hemorrhage under skin
Psoriasis Chronic skin disease (auto immune, red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales)
Pruritus Intense itching
Purpura Any severe bleeding disorder
Tinea Any fungal skin disease (ringworm)
Urticaria Allergic reaction of the skin (eruption of pale red elevated patches, hives)
Vitiligo Loss of skin pigmentation
Verruca Warts
Pharynx throat
esophagus tube that leads to stomach
Small intestine 20' long
Duodenum uppermost segment of SI
Jujunum Middle section of SI (8' long)
Ileum bottom section of SI ( 12' long)
Large Intestine 5' long, no digestion, only secretion of mucas in colon
Liver largest organ in body, produces bile, removes glucose from blood, stores vitamins (B12, A, D, E, K), destroys toxic products, destroys erythrocytes to create bilirubin, produces blood proteins
Prothrombin blood protein made in liver to aid in clotting
Fibrinogen blood protein made in liver to aid in clotting
Pancreas performs endocrine (metabolism hormones 1. alpha / glucagon 2. Beta / insulin) and exocrine (insulin secretion) function
Gall Bladder stores bile and releases into duodenum through common bile duct
Ulcer circumscribed lesion of the skin or mucous membrane (gastric, doudenal, or colitis)
Peptic Ulcer Disease devel in part of GI tract exposed to HCLand pepsin, H. pylori is leading cause (releases a toxin that promotes mucosal inflammation and ulceration)
Ulcerative colitis Chronic inflammatory disease of the LI and rectum (starts in lower portion / profuse watery dia. w/ bl, mucus and pus)
Hernia Protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of cavity
5 types of Hernia 1. Inguinal= groin 2. strangulated= blood supply to hernia cut off 3. umbilical = intestine through naval 4. Diaphragmatic 5. Hiatal = lower esophagus and st top through diaphragm to thorax
Bowel obtruction bowel twists on itself = tissue death, perforation, inflam. of peritoneum
Hemorrhoids enlarged veins in mucus membranes of anal canal, itch, hurt, bleed
Bilirubin yellow product formed when erythrocytes are destroyed (Jaundice color)
Diverticulosis small blisterlike pockets in LI inner lining that can possibly balloon through the intestinal wall
Diverticulitis Inflamed diverticuli (lower left ab pain, extreme const or dia, fever, ab swelling, occasional bl in stool)
Stomach cancer persistent indigestion, rare, high mortality, men more
colorectal cancer (LI epithelial lining) common, bowel changes, bl / mucus in stool, rectal/ ab pain, anemia, weight loss, obstruction and perforation
colorectal cancer (sigmoid and rectum) common (partial obstruction- const and dia alt, low ab cramp and distention
Ascites Acum of fluid in ab (cirrhosis, HBP, cancer, heart failure)
Borborygmus noise with gas passing through intestines
Cachexia lack of nutrition and wasting with chronic disease and emotional disterbance
Crohn disease chronic inflammation in intestion (usually Ileum) w/ fever, cramping, dia, weight loss
Cirrhosis degenerative disease of the liver (hepatic cells replaced by fibrous tissue that impairs flow of blood and lymph
Colic spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ accompanied by pain (esp colon)
Dysentery inflamation of the intestines (esp colon), results in bloody diarrhea
Dyspepsia epigastric discomfort felt after eating
Dysphagia inability or difficulty swalowing
Eructation belching
Gastroesphageal Reflux Disease backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to spincter malfunction at the inferior esophagus
Hematemesis vomiting blood (bright red, usually Peptic ulcer)
IBS ab pain, altered bowel function, aggravated by stress and anxiety
Melena dark tarry stools from blood in upper GI
Peristalsis involuntary wavelike motion in hollow tubes of body
pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric oriface
Steatrrhea pass large amount of feces because can't digest and absorb
Larynx voice box
Epiglottis seals air passage during swallowing
Trachea wind pipe
Pharynx passage of food and air
bronchi 2 branches trachea divides into
Bronchioles branches off of bronchus
Aveoli sacs where bronchioles terminate
how many lobes of Lungs 5 (3 right and 2 left)
Mediastinum space between rt and lt lung
Pleura serous membrane that envelopes lung lobes
Visceral Pleura innermost lung lining
Parietal Pleura outermost lung lining (lines thorasic cavity
Pleural Cavity cavity between visceral and parietal pleura containing a small amount of lubrication to allow gliding during breathing
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (chronic partial obstruction of air passage, difficult breathing on exertion, chronic cough)
3 main disorders in COPD Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema
Asthma spasms in bronchial passages (sudden and violent, cough produces large amounts of mucus)
Chronic Bronchitis Inflammation of bronchi from smoking, air pollution, viruses, bacteria (heavy productive cough with chest pain, severe= exercise intolerance, wheezing)
Emphysema decreased elasticity of the aiveoli, can't contract to original size. Barrel chest appearance. Hard to breath when lying down. Assoc with long term smoking
Influenza Acute infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus (A worse - C mild flu)
TB highly communicable (through breath). survive 6-8 mo outside of body. asymptomatic for years
Pneumonia any inflammatory disease of the lungs (chest pain, mucopurulent sputum, spitting bl). Caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, chemicals
Cystic fibrosis hereditary disorder of endocrine gland causing viscous secretion of mucus that clogs ducts or tubes of pancreas, digestive tract, and sweat glands. Body's immune system attacks lungs
Bronchogenic carcinoma most common cancer assoc. with tobacco use
Acidosis xs acidity of body fluids assoc with pulmonary insufficiency and retention of CO2
Anosmia Absence of or decrease in the sense of smell
Apnea temporary loss of breathing
asphyxia condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
Cheyne-stroke respiration repeating breathing patterns, fluctuations in the depth of respiration (deep to shallow to not at all)
Croup common childhood condition = inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages (resonant barking cough, suffocative and difficult breathing)
Epistaxis nosebleed
Finger clubbing enlargement of the fingers and toes assoc with pulmonary disease
Hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia absence or xu of oxygen in the tissues
Pertussis whooping cough
Pleurisy inflammation of the plural cavity (stabbing pain, increased when coughing or breathing)
Rale crackle, abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation (listening with stethoscope)
Pneumoconiosis disease caused by inhaling dust particles
Pulminary edema Commonly caused by heart failure (extravascular fluid accumulates in lung tissues and alveoli)
Rhonchus breath sounds like snoring or rattling (due to obstruction from secretions, mucosal, tumor tissue)
stridor high pitched sound due to turbulent air flow in the upper airway (seek immediate attention)
Wheezing whistling or sighing sound
Aneurysm a blood filled localized dilation of blood vessels caused by weakening of a vessel wall (usually an artery)
Arrhythmia a lack of steady rhythm
Bruit also a murmur (vascular not cardiac) the sound that blood makes as it rushes past an obstruction in an artery
Embolus mass of undissolved matter (usually a clot of blood, thrombus) that circulates until it becomes lodged in a vessel
Thrombus blood clot
Fibrillation usually referring to the heart, spontaneous muscle contractions or quivering that prevent effective contractions
Hemostasis blood stagnation
Hyperlipidemia too much fat in the blood
Epicardium outer most layer of the heart
myocardium muscle layer of the heart
endocardium membrane that lines the four chambers of the heart and valves
Atruims collect blood
ventricles pump blood
Diaphoresis profuse sweating
viscosity sticky or gummy in quality
Arteries heart to body
Veins body to heart
Capillaries join the arterial system to the venous system
oxygen blood travels from arteries to arterioles to cappilaries
Rt side of heart's job pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Lt side of hearts job pumps oxygenated blood to body
Sinoatrial node (SA) specialized HT cell, pacemaker of the heart, propagates each heartbeat
Systole contraction phase , blood forced out of ht, top number of BP reading
Diastole relaxation phase, ventricles fill with blood, bottom number of BP reading
Thinngs that effect Blood pressure 1. how much blood 2. how elastic arteries 3. how thick blood 4. how well heart pumps blood 5. how blood flow resists in the vessles
Aneurysm Weakness or dilation of blood vessels
Arrhythmia When Ht beat skips
Thrombus blood clot that causes obstruction
Embolus a thrombus, pbject, gas, air etc. that iscirculating in the body
Where is pituitary gland (hypophysis) base of the brain
Anterior pituitary secretes ACTH, FSH, GH, LH, TSH, Prolactin
Posterior pituitary secretes ADH, Oxytocin
Adrenocorticotropic hormone ((ACTH) Promotes the secretion of some hormoes, particularly Cortisol
Too much of what hormone can cause cushing disease Cortisol
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) women = produces eggs and increases estrogen men = produces sperm too little and failure of sexual maturation
Growth Hormone (GH) causes growth too much = gigantism in children, too little = pituitary dwarfism
Lutenizing Hormone (LH) women = promote ovulation, men = promotes testosterone secretion
Prolactin promotes lactation
Thyriod stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion of thyroid hormone, too much = graves disease, too little in infant = cretinism, too little in adults = myxedema
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) helps water return to blood, too little = diabetes insipidus
Oxytocin causes uterine contractions and promotes secretion of milk
largest endocrine gland thyroid
Thyroid hormone responsible for metabolism of fats, protein, carbohydrates and plays an important role in maintaining a healthy blood pressure
Thyroxine T4 major hormone that thyroid secretes
Triodothyronine T3 hormone that thyroid secretes
Parathyriod hormone regulates calcium balance: causes calcium and phosphate to be released from the bones and enhances the absorption of calcium and phosphates from foods
Melatonin secreted by pineal gland
Islets of Langerhans part of the pancreas containing alpha and beta cells which secrete glucagon and insulin respectivly
glucagon signals liver to release glucose
insulin causes insulin to enter the body
Cancer stage categorizes the size and extent of the primary tumor (T), the number of lymph nodes involved (N), and the amount of metastasis (M)
Cancer grade a measure of how abnormal cells from your tumor appear under the microscope
Cancer stage one Tis (in situ) no invasion of other tissues
Cancer stage two T1 - T4 depending on size and extent of primary tumor, N0M0
Cancer stage three N1 - N4 depending on the number of lymph nodes involved, M0
Cancer stage four M1 indicates metastasis
Basal cell carcinoma most common type of skin cancer, malignancy of the stratum germinatum (basal cell layer of the epidermis), hair follicles are over exposed to sunlight resulting in malignancy, metastasis is uncommon
Stratum germinatium basal cell layer of the epidermis
Squamous cell carcinoma causes Causes: 1. repeated overexposure to UV rays 2. radiation therapy 3. chronic skin irritation and inflammation 4. exposed to local carcinogens (tar and oil) 5. hereditary diseases 5. presence of pre-malignant lesions
Squamous cell carcinoma arises in keratinizing epidermal cells, invasive and potential for metastisis
Malignant melanoma neoplasm of melanocytes, commonly begin in dark pigmented mole. most lethal, metastasize extensively to liver, lungs and brain.
Atrioventricular node (AV) Specialized HT cell, when gets the contraction impulse causes atria to contract
Bundle of HIS (AV bundle) Specialized HT cell, when gets the contraction impulse relays impulse to purkinje fibers
Purkinje Fibers Specialized HT cell, when gets the contraction impulse causes ventricles to contract
What is the order of the HT contractor impulse SA node, AV node, Bundle of HIS, Purkinje fibers
What does the P wave represent on an electrocardiograph depolarization / contraction of the atria
What does the QRS wave represent on an electrocardiograph depolarization / contraction of the ventricles
What does the T wave represent on an electrocardiograph re-polarization / recovery of the ventricles
Created by: sarahce