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Toxicology & TDM

Into to toxicology

define toxicology the study & science of poisons & poisonings
substance that when used in small amounts is injurious to health or dangerous to life Poison
the degree of poisonous hazard present by a given substance Toxicity
Minimal Lethal Dose (MLD) is defined as the smallest amt of a substance that will cause death
Minimal Lethal Dose (MLD) -rating from 1-6....what is practically nontoxic to super toxic 1-practically non toxic 2- slightly 3- moderately 4- very 5-extremely 6-super toxic
Most common routes of exposures are ingestion,inhalation and transdermal absorption
Acute toxicity single, short-term exposure to a substance
Repeated, frequent exposure for extended periods of time is know as: Acute or Chronic Toxicity? Chronic
DEA class drugs [I] Examples -no accepted medical use in the US and a high potential for abuse heroin LSD PCP mescaline marijuana
DEA class drugs [II] Examples -high abuse potential w/ severe pyschic or physical dependence opium codeine hydromorphone
DEA class drugs [III] Examples -less potential for abuse than I or II; limited amts of narcotics Doriden Nodeular
DEA class drugs [IV] Examples -less than class III barbiturates benzodiazapines
DEA class drugs [V] Examples -less than class IV; limited narcotic concentration antidiarrheal medicine
Analysis of toxic agents: two-step procedure 1. Screening: has good analytic ____ but lacks ____ 2. Confirmatory Screening: good sensitivity but lacks specificity Confirmatory: confirms screening
Contaminated or adulterated samples may cause erroneous results that lead to significant consequences
Urine Adulteration Test Strip-Intect 7 CNGPSBP Creatinine Nitrite Glutaraldehyde pH Specific Gravity Bleach Pyridinium chlorochromate
Drugs of Abuse: Hypnotics & sedatives -f[x] & examples calm or produce sleep barbiturates, benzodiazapine, doriden
Drugs of Abuse: Analgesics -f[x] & examples reduce or eliminate pain narcotic: morphine non narc: aspirin, acetaminophen
Drugs of Abuse: Stimulants -f[x] & examples work on CNS & produce excitation -amphetamine, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine
Drugs of Abuse: Antidepressants -f[x] & examples control anxiety tricylic compounds
Drugs of Abuse: Tranquilizers -f[x] & examples lower anxiety benzos,phenothiazines, carbamates
Drugs of Abuse: Psychotoxic -f[x] & examples produce euphoria or hallucinations Class I drugs: PCP or LSD
Drugs of Abuse: Antihistamines -f[x] block action of histamines--cause drowsiness and coma in overdose
Drugs of Abuse: Antionvulsants -f[x] & examples depress CNS to prevent seizures Phenobarb, Dilantin
Drugs are classified by salt forming ability
Acidic drug forms salt w/ bases i.e______ Sodium Phenobarb
Basic drug forms salt w/ acids i.e____ Ephederine HCL
Neutral drugs do not form salts w/ either bases or acids i.e____ Meprobamate & Glutethimide
Created by: haley.gooch