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Patho Fall 2019

Final Exam Prep Review

What are the four major forms of atherosclerosis? Cerebral atherosclerosis Coronary atherosclerosis Aortic atherosclerosis Peripheral atherosclerosis
High blood pressure caused by an underlying condition is called? Secondary HTN
CHF means? Congestive heart failure
What does CAP mean? Community acquired pneumonia
What does HAP mean? Hospital acquired pneumonia
What is the spinal level of injury in tetraplegia? C5
What is the spinal level of injury in paraplegia? T12
Which IP joint are Herberden's Nodes found on? DIP
How do you treat mallet finger? keep finger in hyperextension in splinting
What are the 4 complications of hypertension cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart disease, renal insufficiency, hypersensitive encephalopathy, hypertensive retinopathy
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also known as Insulin dependent
True or False: Interstitial pneumonia is caused by bacteria False: it is viral
A person's blood oxygen level should not drop below what percentage, and if it does you are to seek medical attention immediately? 90%
What is the normal rate for blood pressure? <120/80
What is a healthy blood sugar level? Under 100.
A lack of insulin results in what? Build up of glucose in the blood stream, otherwise known as hyperglycemia.
Incentive Spirometry specifically measures what? Lung function and the client's ability to breathe out
What specific type of pneumonia effects one side of the lungs and one specific lobe of the lungs (typically the lowest lobe)? Lobar Pneumonia
What type of fracture goes entirely through the bone and is unstable? Simple complete
types of stroke -ischemic -hemorrhage -transient ischemic attack
What are the four temporal lobe functions? Memory and learning Organizing and sequencing Hearing Understanding languag
What is the most common cause of SCIs? Motor Vehicle Accidents
Definition of Diabetes A condition in which the body cannot make or cannot use insulin properly
Emphysema is difficulty? Exhaling
Interstitial pneumonia is caused by? A virus
What is the rate for stage 2 hypertension? >140/90
What stage of inflammatory joint disease presents with signs of early joint damage, decreased range of motion and stiffness due to joint damage? Subacute
Which lobe in the brain is responsible for memory and learning, organizing and sequencing, hearing, and understanding language? Temporal Lobe
What are the three layers of tissue/skin in the body? epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue
Subclavian steal syndrome Rare condition caused by a narrowing of the subclavian artery that runs under the clavicle
Which type of scar extends beyond the original site of a burn injury? Keloid
What is the only type of pneumonia that is caused by a virus? Interstitial Pneumonia
At what O2 level would be considered a clinical emergency? Below 90%
What Fracture is the most common injury to the distal forearm? Colles' fracture
What is hemiparesis? Weakness of one entire side of the body
What is a neuroma? A benign neoplasm composed mostly of neurons and nerve fibers
What disease is a degenerative condition that gets worse with age and is caused by the development of plaque in an artery? Atherosclerosis
Osteoblasts are known as Bone building cells
What type of hemorrhagic stroke includes bleeding onto the surface of the brain. Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
What is the main cause of COPD? Exposure to smoke or childhood respiratory infection
What does the T stand for in cancer staging in the TMN system? primary tumor
What does the N stand for in cancer staging in the TMN system? lymph nodes
What does the M stand for in cancer staging in the TMN system? metastasis
What kind of fracture breaks through the skin? Compound Fracture
What is hypernatremia? High sodium levels
The study of populations in order to determine the frequency and distribution of disease and measure risks is known as? Epidemiology
Hypoxemia is inadequate supply of oxygen in your blood, this is when your O2 goes below what percent? 90%
Patients with emphysema have difficulty with? difficulty with exhaling
This type of diabetes is known as insulin dependent. Type 1
Diabetics can experience damage to the peripheral nerves, what is the name for this? Neuropathy
What is the by-product produced from the breakdown of the body's own fats and lipids for energy? Ketones
What does 'FAST' stand for? Face, Arms, Speech, & Time
What is the ICD used for? International Classification of Diseases. It is used to organize and code health information.
What is the most common fracture to the distal forearm. Usually caused by FOOSH? Colle's Fracture
When there is a lack of insulin, there is a build up of glucose in the blood stream, which is called ____. hyperglycemia
A fasting BS of 120 indicates what? Pre-diabetes
How long should inflammation last for? 3-4 days, no more than 7 days
After the first TBI, it is how much more likely the person gets a second? 3 times
Why is insulin important for the body? Because it functions to regulate glucose in the body's cells where it is issued to growth and energy.
What are macrophages? Clean up crew, signal other inflammatory and immune cells
Schwann cells are responsible for? Nerve tissue regeneration
What is a traveling blood clot? An embolus
What is it called when a patient has a low red blood cell count? Anemic
What are the 5 signs of inflammation? calor rubor tumor dolor function lasea
What is the primary function of antibodies? To neutralize foreign bodies
Which type of pneumonia affects one lobe, usually a lower lobe, and is bacteria related? Lobar Pneumonia
What is the decrease in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or the entire body? Atrophy
What is the difference between hypertrophy and hyperplasia? Hyperplasia - increased number of cells in a tissue or organ / hypertrophy - increase in size of tissue and organs
What area of the brain regulates hormones? Hypothalamus
In gamekeepers thumb, the thumb is in what position? Hyperabducted
What protein holds the dermis together and is made by fibroblasts? collagen
What are the two types of scars we learned about? Keloids and hypertrophic
Has a sudden onset and usually occurs in people under the age of 30. Type 1 Diabetes
Usually caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. Presents with hyperglycemia, nephropathy, neuropathy, and/or retinopathy. Type 2 Diabetes
What type of fracture usually involves acute angulation of the head of the 5th metacarpal into the palm? Boxer's fracture
What is another name for Popcorn Lung? Bronchiolitis Obliterans
What is anoxia? No oxygen
What method is used in assessing scarring from burns? Vancouver Scar Scale
Low hemoglobin leads to... being easily exhausted and fatigued due to the heart working harder to transport oxygen
What type of scan is better for trauma because it is faster? (CT or MRI) CT scan
The ending "oma" means that the tumor is what? benign
Created by: Alvernia
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