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Module 1 PT55

Term definitions

QuestionAnswer
actin thin, protein filament component of myofibril
ATP chemical source for energy for body - adenosine triphosphate
ATPase enzyme which splits ATP to release energy
fast-twitch (FT) fiber a type of muscle fiber which is characterized by lower peak tension time and highest power
motor unit a single motor neuron and muscle fibers it innervates
muscle fiber another name for a muscle cell whose structure contains nucleus, mitocondria, sacroplasm and myofibril. Individual muscle cell whose size ranges from 10-80um is diameter and range up to 12cm long.
myofibril contractile elements of skeletal muscle composed of sarcomeres
myosin a thick protein filament composed of two protein strands, each folded into a globular head at one end
myosin cross-bridge the two-headed portion of myosin filament with attachment sites for actin and ATP
sarcolemma plasma membrane which surrounds the muscle fiber/cell whose ends are fused to tendons which are attached to bones
transverse tubules extentions of the sarcolemma which run laterally through muscle figer. They carry nerve impulses and allow for the exchange of waste products in the fiber.
sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium storage area which wraps around myofibrils
sacroplasm flud inside the muscle fiber composed of various organels and other cell material
sarcomere basic unit of myofibril
slow-twitch (ST) fiber type of muscle fiber characterized by slower peak tension time, lowest power and high aerobic endurance
tropomyosin tube shaped protein which twists around the actin strand which hides the active sites during muscle relaxation
troponin a complex protein which is attached at regular intervals to tropomyosin. It has an affinity for calcium ions which are released during muscle activation and this affinity results in the pulling of the troponin off the myosin’s active site ultimately resul
action potential rapid and substantial depolarization of a neuron’s membrane
golgi tendon organ organ of the sensory division which detects the strain of the muscle/tendon complex thereby causing muscle actions to reduce injury
muscle spindle specialized muscle fibers whose function is to monitor the length of the muscle and along with sensory nerve ending communicate to the CNS to maintain the desired muscle length
neuromuscular junction site where motor neurons communicate with muscle fibers
summation the cumulative effect of all graded potentials by axon hillocks which potentially result in an action potential
synapse site where nerve impulses are transmitted from one neuron to the next
neurotransmitter chemicals stored in axon terminals of a neuron which facilitate communication to the neighboring neuron
depolarization decrease of potential voltage change of a neuron’s cell membrane below the rest membrane potential (RMP = -70mV). This is used as a communication signal between cells
Created by: surferbum