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Human Respiration

A&P II - Human Respiratory System

QuestionAnswer
what structure forms the floor of the nasal cavity? the hard palate forms the floor of the nasal cavity
which part of the pharynx is most superior? the nasopharynx is the most superior part of the pharynx
What is the name of the large, shield-shaped cartilage of the larynx? the thyroid cartilage is the large, shield-shaped cartilage of the larynx
which part of the larynx is involved in the production of sound? the vocal folds are involved in the production of sound
The tracheal cartilages are _________-shaped tracheal cartilages are C-Shaped
the Left lung has ____________ lobes, where as the right lung has __________ lobes the left lung has TWO lobes and the right lung has THREE lobes
the bronchioles have walls dominated by _______________(tissue). the bronchioles are dominated by smooth muscle
what respiratory cells are responsible for phagocytosis of particles or pathogens that reach the alveoli? alveolar macrophages are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens that reach the alveoli
what is the specific term for the process involved in breathing pulmonary ventilation
According to Boyle's law, if the volume of a sealed container of cases decreased, then the pressure in that container __________________. the pressure in the container increases
when the diaphragm contracts volume in the lungs _____________. the volume in the lungs increase
which gas has the highest partial pressure in the air we breath nitrogen has the highest partial pressure
how is oxygen most often carried in the blood oxygen is most often bound to heme in hemoglobin
carbon dioxide is most often transported _________________ as molecules of carbonic acid that dissociate to form bicarbonate and hydrogen ions
which neural group is found in the medulla oblongata and functions in forced breathing the Ventral respiratory group is in the medulla and functions in forced breathing
This disease is normal to a certain extent in patients over 50. However, the severity of this diseased is enhanced by cigarette smoke and other irritants emphysema
the difference between the vestibular fold and the vocal folds is that the vestibular folds _____________________. vestibular folds play no part in sound
what structures in the trachea prevent its collapse or over expansion as pressure changes in the respiratory the c-shaped cartilage prevents collapse and over expansion
what will happen if food particles or liquids manage to touch the surface of the vestibular folds or the glottis the coughing reflex is triggered
in a bronchiole, the release of histamine by activated mast cells and basophils ______________________. histamines increases bronchoconstriction and decreases airflow
the parietal pleura are attached to the ________________. inner thoracic body wall, mediastinum, and superior surface of the diaphragm
During internal respiration, the exchange of the respiratory gases takes place between ____________. the systemic capillaries and the interstitial fluid that surrounds the cells
breathing, which involves the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs, is ___________ pulmonary ventilation is the process of breathing
air enters the respiratory passageways when the pressure inside the lungs is lower than the __________________ atmospheric pressure
during quiet breathing, the diaphragm and the external intercostals muscles contract. what effect does this have on the thoracic cavity it increases the volume and decreases the pressure of the thoracic cavity
what happens to intrapulmonary pressure during expiration intrapulmonary pressure increases during expiration
which gas is most soluble in plasma carbon dioxide
what is the partial pressure of oxygen that travels through a pulmonary vein and enters the left side of the heart is approximately ___________________ mmHg
each molecule of hemoglobin has the capacity to carry ________ molecules of oxygen four (4)
What percentage of total oxygen is carried within RBC chemically bound to hemoglobin 98%
what marks the beginning of the lower respiratory system the larynx marks the lower respiratory system
when each hemoglobin molecule binds with four molecules of oxygen, the end product is ________________ oxyhemoglobin
carbon dioxide is transported in the blood mostly as _____________________ a bicarbonate ion
how is oxyhemoglobin saturation affected by an increase in skeletal muscle activity and an increase in body temperature. a decrease in the percentage of oxyhemoglobin saturation
The Hering-Breuer inflation reflex is important in regulating the forced ventilations that accompany strenuous exercise. This reflex is initiated by ____________ stretch receptor stimulation located in the smooth muscle of bronchioles
name the four paranasal sinuses frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary
a rise in arterial partial CO2 elevates carbon dioxide levels in CSF and stimulates the chemoreceptive neurons of the medulla to produce ____________________. an increase in rate and depth of breathing
thr primary function of pulmonary ventilation is to maintain adequate _______________ primary function of pulmonary ventilation is to maintain adequate ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
the purpose of the fluid in the pleural cavity is to __________________ reduce friction between the parietal and visceral pleura
when the lungs are in resting position, the factor that opposes their collapse is (intrapulmonary/intrapleural) pressure of ______________ mmHg. at rest the factor that opposes their collapse is intrapleural pressure of -4 mmHg
what will happen to a person who has been stabbed in the chest if the thoracic wall is punctured but the lung is NOT penetrated collapsed lung
what is the most important factor determining airway resistance airway radius
The parasympathetic division of the ANS causes _________________ of airway smooth muscle; therefore, the resistance is ____________. constriction: increased
what substance is administered during an asthmatic attack to decrease resistance by dilating the airways epinepherine
with regard to local regulation of gas transport, if the partial pressure of Carbon dioxide in the bronchioles increase, the bronchioles ___________________. dilate
the volume of alveolar air and capillary blood in the right proportion to each alveolus produces ___________________. lung efficiency
If a person is breathing 15 times per minute and has a tidal volume of 500 mL, the total respiratory minute volume is _________ 7500 mL/min
Residual volume is the volume of air that _______________. remains in the lungs after maximal expiration
The maximal amount of air moved in and out during a single breath is ______________. vital capacity
if a person is breathing 12 times per minute and the tidal volume is 500 mL, what is the alveolar ventilation rate 4200 mL/min
what is the most effective means of increasing alveolar ventilation breathing slowly and deeply
respiratory distress syndrome is cause by lack of ______________. respiratory distress syndrome is cause by lack of SURFACTANT
what is the partial pressure of Oxygen at sea level 160 mmHg
it is important that free H+ resulting from dissociation of H2CO3 combine with hemoglobin to reduce the possibility of ____________________ an acidic condition within the blood
in the pulmonary capillaries, the bicarbonate ion is always returned to the ______________. red blood cell
what are three major things that characterizes emphysema shortness of breath, destruction of alveolar surfaces, and an increase in compliance
as the number of molecules of gas dissolved in a liquid increases, the pressure of the gas (increases/decreases/remains the same) pressure of the gas increases
movement of air into and out of the lungs is accomplished by the process of ____________, whereas all movement of gases across membranes is by __________. bulk flow; passive diffusion
The correct sequential transport of O2 from the tissue capillaries to O2 consumption in cells is __________. erythrocytes, plasma, interstitial fluid, cells
arrange the airways in order that air would pass through going from the larynx to the alveoli (in order) trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, and respiratory bronchioles
what is the term for the amount of air moving into or out of the lung during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions the resting tidal volume
what is the amount of air that can be forcibly expelled after a normal quiet respiratory cycle the end reserve volume
what is residual volume the amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal exhalation
what is inspiratory reserve volume the amount of air that can be drawn into the lungs after a normal quiet respiratory cycle
what is the maximum amount of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single respiratory cycle vital capacity
how do you measure total lung capacity vital capacity plus residual volume
each gas contributes to the total pressure in proportion to its relative abundance is the explanation for __________________ Dalton's Law
what is partial pressure the pressure contributed by a single gas in a mixture of gasses
which law states that the amount of a particular gas in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas Henry's Law
what are pressure laws the pressure of gas is inversely proportional to the size of the container in which it is held
where is angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) located angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is located in the respiratory system (particularly in the lungs)
what structure(s) produces sound in the human body vocal cords produce sound
what structure(s) creates resonance the sinuses create resonance
if the number of available alveoli were to increase, what would happen to the amount of diffusion surface area the increase in available alveoli leads to the increase in diffusion Surface Area
with tissue thickness, what happens to diffusion with an increase in tissue thickness, there is a decrease in gass diffusion into the blood stream
what is the boundary between the anatomical upper and lower respiratory system the larynx is the boundary between the upper and lower respiratory system
what are the two portions of the functional portion of the respiratory tract the conducting and the respiratory portions
how is the functional organization categorized where does does gas exchange occur and where it does not
what part of the respiratory system warms, humidifies, and filters air as it enters in the body upper/conducting respiratory system
what is the conditioning process the process that the body uses to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air (preparing it for the lungs)
what is the primary anatomical structure that performs the conditioning process respiratory mucosa (the mucous membranes)
where can the respiratory mucosa be found respiratory mucosa lines the conduction portion of the respiratory system
what is the respiratory defense system the process of trapping debris and pathogens in the respiratory mucosa, therefore limiting the amount of debris and pathogens that enter the lungs
what layer of respiratory tissue includes mucous glands lamina propria contains mucous glands
what moves the mucous in the respiratory defense system to the pharynx cilia
name the most common inherited, lethal disease in which the respiratory mucosa is too dense and viscous to be transported cystic fibrosis
why do people with cystic fibrosis get constant respiratory infections because the mucosa they produce is so thick, the mucociliary escalator stops working, this can lead to frequent infections and blocking passageways
what is the primary passageway for air entering the body the nose (the external nares) are the primary passageway for air entering the body
what is the purpose of the concha the cocha creates turbulence in the nasal cavity
why is air turbulence so important in the nasal cavity (name 3 items) 1) allows particles to become trapped in mucous, 2) increases time to warm up air, and 3) brings olfactory stimuli to olfactory sensors
what is epistaxis nosebleed
what is the common cause of epistaxis in children nose picking
what are some other causes of nosebleeds dryness, infections, allergies, and clotting disorders
what sits between the C-shaped in the trachea smooth muscle
how does smoking affect cilia function smoking breaks down cilia in the trachea and bronchiole tree
how do bronchioles control distribution of air flow in lungs bronchioles changes in diameter
what division of the ANS dilates bronchioles sympathetic division
what ANS division constricts the bronchioles parasympathetic division
what is anaphalaxis excessive bronchoconstriction
what is anaphylaxis in response to histamine releases
which white blood cells release histamine, which can cause anaphylaxis activated mast cells and basophils
what does "pneumo" mean air
what is the term"pneumothorax" literally mean air in chest (usually used to describe a collapsed lung)
where does the respiratory portion of the respiratory system start respiratory bronchioles
what part of the nervous system controls the diameter of the bronchioles autonomic nervous system
there are two types of pneumocytes in the lungs, which one is the most abundant pneumocyte Type I is the most abundant
what cells in the lung are responsible for gas exchange pneumocytes Type I are responsible for gas exchange
what cells in the respiratory system are responsible for engulfing particles that have eluded other respiratory defenses alveolar macrophages
how does pulmonary ventilation affect the size of the alveoli with inspiration alveoli increase and with expiration alveoli decrease
what happens to the intrapleural pressure with inhalation intrapleural pressure DECREASES with inhalation
what respiratory cells are responsible for the production and secretion of surfactant pneumocytes Type II
what is surfactant it is an oily secretion that plays a key factor in keeping alveoli open
how does surfactant help keep alveoli open it decreases surface tension of water on inside of alveoli (inside of lungs)
in the Respiratory Defense System, ____________________ in the nasal cavity removes large particles Filtration removes large particles
______________ sweep mucous and trapped debris and microorganisms toward pharynx to be swallowed cilia
in the lower respiratory system, how does the autonomic nervous system regulate air flow the autonomic nervous system controls luminal diameter of bronchioles by regulating smooth muscle
the sympathetic division causes the bronchioles to _________________. This reduces resistance to air flow sympathetic division causes BRONCHODILATION
in response to sympathetic division stimulation, the bronchi (enlarge/reduce) in luminal diameter. bronchi enlarge in lumial diameter
name two things that cause bronchoconstriction 1) parasympathetic division stimulation and 2) Histamine release (allergic reactions)
(enlarging/reducing) luminal diameter increases resistance to air flow reducing diameter increases resistance
pneumocytes type (I/II) are thin, delicate , and the site of gas exchange pneumocytes type I is the site of gas exchange
__________________ is an oily secretion that coats the alveolar surface and reduces surface and reduces surface tension surfactant
what is respiratory distress syndrome alveoli collapse after each exhalation
respiratory distress syndrome is caused by inadequate amounts of _____________________ due to injury or genetic abnormalities respiratory distress syndrome is caused by inadequate surfactant
gas exchange occurs across the __________________________ (respiratory membrane) of the alveoli blood air barrier
name the three layers in the respiratory membrane (blood air barrier) 1) alveolar cell layer, 2) capillary endothelial layer, 3) basement membrane that fuses them
Respiratory exchange surfaces receive (oxygenated/deoxygenated) blood from pulmonary capillaries respiratory exchange surfaces receive deoxygenated blood
after receiving Oxygen from from alveoli pulmonary veins carry blood to ________________________ Left Atrium of the heart
what is the name of the process that involves gas exchange between blood and alveoli external respiration
what is the name of the process that involves gas exchange between blood and interstitial tissue internal respiration
(internal/external) respiration is a result of cellular respiration internal respiration is the results of cellular respiration
the partial pressure of Oxygen INSIDE the alveoli is ________________ O2 partial pressure is 100 mmHg inside the alveoli
the partial pressure of carbon dioxide INSIDE the alveoli is ___________________ 40 mmHg is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide inside the alveoli
what is hypoxia low tissue oxygen level
what is anoxia a complete lack of oxygen
pulmonary ventilation is another term for _______________ breathing
what is the physical movement of air into and out of lungs pulmonary ventilation if physical movement of air
what provides for alveolar ventilation pulmonary ventilation provides for alveolar ventilation
what is atmospheric pressure it is the weight of the earth's atmosphere and has several important physiological effects
which law defines the relationship between gas pressure and volume boyle's law
the relationship between pressure and volume is (direct/indirect) there is an indirect relationship between pressure and volume
as the volume of a container decreases, the pressure in the container __________________ pressure increases as volume decreases
as the volume of a container increases, the pressure in the container ___________________ pressure decreases as volume decreases
how does gas exert pressure on a container the movement of gas molecules creates pressure
during ventilation, air flows from an area of ______________ pressure to an area of ____________ low air flows from HIGH pressure to LOW pressure
what does one respiratory cycle consist of one inspiration (inhale) and one expiration (exhale)
how does pulmonary ventilation create pressure changes is in the lungs during inhalation the thorax increases in volume. Pressure decreases
what happens with diaphragm contraction (inhalation) ribs and sternum are elevated, increasing volume, decrease pressure, air moves from area of high pressure (atmosphere) to an area of low pressure (lungs)
describe what happens with air movement when pressure inside and outside lungs are equal there is no air movement
describe the intrapulmonary pressure is ________________ to/than atmospheric pressure between breaths. describe what air flow is occuring intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure and there is no air movement
what happens to thoracic and lung volume with inspiratory muscle contraction lung and thorax volume increase with inspiratory muscle contraction
what happens to intrapulmonary pressure during inspiration intrapulmonary pressure decreases to below atmospheric prssure
during exhalation, thoracic volume decreases due to ______________________ elastic recoil
during exhalation, what happens to intrapulmonary pressure intrapulmonary pressure increases to above atmospheric pressure
name the two primary respiratory muscles the diaphragm and external intercostals
when are accessory respiratory muscles activated accessory respiratory muscles are activated when respiration increases significantly (forced respiration)
during quiet breathing inhalation is _____________ and exhalation is ______________ active; passive
during forced breathing inhalation is _____________ and exhalation is _______________ active; active
the ______________ produces 75% or work during inhalation and _____________________ do the other 25% of the work diaphragm; external intercostal muscles
what is hypernea forced breathing
what is eupnea quiet breathing
deep breathing (diaphragmatic breathing) dominated by diaphragm
shallow breathing (costal breathing) dominated by rib cage movements
what is elastic rebound when the elastic components of the thorax recoil as the diaphragm and rib cage return to its original positions
when does elastic rebound normally occur when inhalation relax
1 atm = ____________ mmHg 760
what determines direction of airflow. the difference between atmospheric pressure determines the direction of air flow
the difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure is (large/small) small
during quiet breathing, the difference between atmospheric pressure is +/- _________ mmHg 1
at maximum capacity, the pressure difference during inhalation can be -_______________ mmHg 30
at maximum capacity, the pressure difference during exhalation can be +_______________ mmHg 100
what is the intrapleural pressure the pressure inside the space between the parietal and the visceral pleurae
the average intrapleural pressure is _____________ mmHg -4
with inhalation, intrapleural pressure ____________________________ intrapleural pressure DECREASES with inhalation
(intrapulmonary/intrapleural) pressure is always below atmospheric pressure intrapleural is always below atmospheric pressure
the changes in the (intrapulmonary/intrapleural) pressure is what creates the respiratory pump for the venous system intrapleural pressure is what creates the respiratory pump for the venous system
_______________________ is when air enters into the pleural cavity pneumothorax
Pneumothorax can be due to ______________ injury to the chest wall or rupture of alveoli
what can pneumothorax result in collapsed lung (atelectasis)
what is atelectasis a collapsed lung
how is air resistance adjusted during pulmonary ventilation bronchodilation and bronchoconstriction
what is compliance the measure of expandability in the lungs
__________ compliance requires greater force to fill lungs low
list three factors that affect compliance 1) connective tissue, 2) level of surfactant production, 3) mobility of thoracic cage
what is the number of breaths per minute respiratory rate
what is tidal volume the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs with each breath
how do you calculate respiratory minute volume (Ve) respiratory rate multiplied by tidal volume
what does respiratory minute volume (Ve) measure amount of air moved per minute
what calculation measures pulmonary ventilation respiratory minute volume
what is the name of the air that remains in the conducting passageways during ventilation anatomic dead space
alveolar ventilation is __________________ the amount of air that reaches the alveoli each minute
why do the alveoli contain (more/less) oxygen than atmospheric pressure less oxygen than atmospheric air
at a given respiratory rate, if the tidal volume increases. What happens to alveolar ventilation alveolar ventilation rate increases with increased tidal volume
for a given tidal volume, if respiratory rate is increased. what happens to ventilation rate alveolar ventilation rate increases with increased respiratory rate
what medical test measures the rates and volumes of air movements pulmonary function test
what instrument is used to measure total lung volume spirometer
list three physical factors of respiratory tract and lungs that influences overall effectiveness of ventilation 1) airway resistance, 2) alveolar surface tension, 3) pulmonary compliance
airway resistance is largely determined by airway ________ caused by ___________________ diameter: smooth muscle
when is surface tension in the alveoli highest surface tension is at the smallest diameter during EXPIRATION
high amounts or unopposed surface tension can cause the alveoli to _______________ during _____________ collapse; expiration
_______________, produced by Type II Alveolar Cells, is a component of liquid film coating that opposes surface tension keeping the alveoli open surfactant
without surfactant, ___________ pulls water molecules inside alveoli together and the alveolus collapes hydrogen bonds
what physical property of water does surfactant disrupt that gives water its surface tension surfactant disrupts the hydrogen bonds
pulmonary compliance influences the _______________ of gas exchange effective ness
what are the three factors that determine pulmonary compliance 1) degree of alveolar surface tension, 2) distensibility of elastic tissue, 3) ability of the chest wall to move
surface tension (resists/assists) the ability of the alveoli to inflate resists
increased surface tension (increases/decreases) pulmonary compliance pulmonary compliance DECREASES with increased surface tension
how does surfactant affect pulmonary compliance? why? surfactant increases pulmonary compliance because it decreases surface tension
what is distensibility of elastic tissue? how does this affect pulmonary compliance ? it is the ability of the lungs to stretch during inflation. the more elastic the tissue is the more compliant the tissue is
with increased ability of the chest wall to move pulmonary compliance (increase/decreases) pulmonary compliance increases with increased mobility of the chest wall
a _______________ in compliance mean the lungs are less able to expand and effectiveness of pulmonary ventilation decreases decrease in pulmonary compliance
what is expiratory reserve volume the amount of air that is being exhaled after a normal breath
what is residual volume the amount of air in the lungs after maximal exhalation
what is minimal volume the amount of air in the lung after collapsed lung
what is inspiratory reserve volume the additional amount of air that can me inhaled after tidal volume
what is inspiratory capacity tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume
what is functional residual capacity (FRC) expiratory reserve volume plus residual volume
what is vital capacity expiratory reserve volume plus tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume
what is total lung capacity vital capacity plus residual volume
_____________________________ only brings new air into and removes Oxygen poor into air from alveoli pulmonary ventilation
during pulmonary ___________, oxygen diffuses from alveoli to blood pulmonary capillaries and carbon dioxide moves in the opposite direction gas exchange
during gas exchange, ______________moves from air in alveoli to blood in pulmonary capillaries oxygen
during gas exchange, __________________ moves from pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli carbon dioxide
what two processes are involved in gas exchange 1) pulmonary gas exchange (external ventilation), 2) tissue gas exchange (internal ventilation)
pulmonary gas exchange involves gas exchange between __________________ alveoli and blood
tissue gas exchange involves exchange of gases between ______________ blood in systemic capillaries and body's cells
what is Dalton's Law each gas contributes to total pressure in proportional to its relative abundance
what is partial pressure pressure of air is made up of different gases, partial pressure is the contribution that each gas makes to the total pressure of the air
nitrogen contributes to ________________% of atmospheric air and has a partial pressure of _________________ mmHg 78.6%; 597
oxygen contributes to _____________________% of atmospheric air and has a partial pressure of ______________ mmHg 20.9; 159
water vapor contributes to _______________% of atmospheric air and has a partial pressure of ______________mmHg 0.5; 3.7
Carbon dioxide contributes to _________________% of atmospheric pressure and has a partial pressure of ______________mmHg 0.04; 0.3
name four main gases that contribute to air in the atmosphere, in order of the amount of partial pressure they contribute. 1) nitrogen, 2) oxygen, 3) water vapor, 4) carbon dioxide
what is Henry's Law the amount of gas in a solution is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas
according to Henry's Law, when gas under pressure contacts a liquid, the __________________________ pressure forces gas molecules into solution
according to Henry's Law, what happens when everything is at equilibrium the diffusion in is equal to the diffusion out, and the number of gas molecules in solution is constant
of the atmospheric gases, which is the most soluble in bodily fluids carbon dioxide
Oxygen is ____________ soluble than Nitrogen and _________________ soluble than Carbon Dioxide more; less
_________________ has very limited solubility nitrogen
what is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the plasma of the pulmonary vein as it enters the left atrium 40 mmHg
what is the partial pressure of oxygren in the plasma of the pulmonary vein as it enters the left atrium 100 mmHg
what is the partial pressure of nitrogen in the plasma of the pulmonary vein as it enters the left atrium 573 mmHg
the direction of diffusion of gases across the blood air barrier is determined by _____________________ the differing partial pressures and solubilities
oxygen and carbon dioxide (are/are not) lipid soluble O2 and CO2 ARE lipid soluble
because of respiratory pump, blood flow and airflow (are/are not) coordinated blood flow and airflow ARE coordinated
external respiration occurs between _________________________ alveoli and capillaries in the pulmonary system
blood that is arriving to the alveoli in the pulmonary arteries has ___________ PO2 levels and _____________ PCO2 levels low PO2; and high PCO2 levels
the difference in concentrations in the pulmonary capillaries causes ____________ to enter the blood and __________________ to leave the blood O2 enters, CO2 leaves
internal respiration occurs between ___________________ systemic capillaries and interstitial fluid (tissues)
what is the Po2 of blood entering the systemic circuit 95-100 mmHg
what is the PO2 and PCO2 of interstitial fluid PO2 - 40 mmHg; PCO2 - 45 mmHg
in the peripheral capillaries, _______________ moves into the blood and _______________ moves out of the blood CO2 moves into blood; O2 moves out
in the alveolus, what is the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 PO2 - 100 mmHg, PCO2 - 40 mmHg
as blood leaves the intersititial fluids (or enters the lungs), what is the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 PO2 - 40 mmHg; PCO2 - 45 mmHg
when Oxygen binds to hemoglobin it becomes _________________ oxyhemoglobin
each hemoglobin can bind to ____________ oxygen molecules four (4)
what are four factors that affect hemoglobin saturation 1) CO2 concentration, 2) Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH), 3) Temp., 4) BPG
With Increased partial pressure of Oxygen results in _______________ Hb Saturation greater/increased
if there is increased partial pressure of Carbon dioxide what happens to the Saturation curve saturation curve moves to the right with increased CO2 partial pressure
with increased hydrogen ion concentration (decreased pH) the saturation curve would move to the _________________ and vice versa right
with decreased temperature, the saturation curve moves to the ________ and vice versa left
Created by: kandriot