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Cardiovascular Sys!

UCI Physio Test 2

Priming pumps atrias
resistance of systemic circulation 1.0 P/Q
resistance of pulmonary circulation 0.14 P/Q
BP values for right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, arteries, arteriole, capillaries, veins 0-5, 25/0, 18, 8, 0-5, 125/0, 125/80, 90, 30, 15
how many ml/sec of blood flow through the lungs 100 ml/sec
avg BP if there were no pump 7mm Hg
VMC stands for what and is found where vasomotor center in the medula of the brain
VMC is modulated by what stretch receptors in the right side of heart, pulmonary artery, proximal aorta, carotid sinus region, and in muscle fibers
baroreceptors stretch receptors in the carotid region
is the VMC intrinsically active or inactive and do stretch stimuli reduce or increase its intrinsic activity VMC is instrinsically active and stretch impulses reduce its activity
3 regions the VMC stimulates (and what does it stimulate with) 1)SA node 2)arteriolar beds 3)veins (norepi)
VMC activity does what 3 things increased HR and strength of contraction 2)constriction of arterioles 3)constriction of veins
ohm's law equivalent pressure=flow*resistence
CBV central blood volume is the volume of blood in the pulmonary circulation plus the chambers of the heart
elastin is found to a greater extent where and what is it's purpose artery vessels closer to the heart; elastin can expand and contract to maintain smooth BP throughout the cardiac cycle
collagen's purpose in arteries provides protection and insures arteries are not over distended
anacrotic limb, dicrotic limb, dicrotic notch ascending limb of arterial pulse pressure graph; descending limb; valve closing
compliance (change in volume)/(change in pressure)
high blood pressure defnition numbers over 139 and over 90
how do you adjust pressure for gravity add 1 mmHg for every cm below the heart
smooth muscles in wall of arterioles are under control of what 3 things 1)sympathetic nervous system (alpha receptors), 2)circulating hormones (epi, norepi, porstaglandins), and 3) metabolites (CO2, K+, H+, adenosine, natriuretic factor)
3 features of capillary network 1)large surface area/volume 2)slow blood movement 3)thin walled
where are post-capillary sphincters found kidney
thoroughfare channel direct flow from arteriole to venule that bypasses capillary; purpose is to dissipate heat at skin
continuous capillary junction size, found where, and purpose <40 angstroms; found in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and lung; minimize protein and H2O loss
fenestrated capillary junction size, found where, and purpose <0.1 micrometers; renal glomeruli, instestinal villi, intestinal mucosa; promote rapid and large exchange of fluid and solute
discontinuous capillary found where and purpose liver, spleen, bone marrow; promotes exchange of macromolecules (protein and cells)
three types of material exchange across capillary networks 1)filtration/absorption 2)diffusion 3)micropinocytosis
OHM's law as applied to flow through cappillaries Pcap=(Part(Rven/Rart)+Pven)/(1+(Rven/Rart))
interstitium pressure pressure pushing fluid into vessels; usually zero unless there's a lymph removal problem
oncotic pressure osmotic pressure on capillaries
starling landis equation and what does the K mean F=K[(Pcap+PIint)-(PIpl+Pint)]; K tells how leaky the capillary is
how does H2O move across capillary endothelium diffusion
liters/day of fluid moved into the lymphatic system 2-4L/day
what drains into the right lymphatic duct arms, neck, head
what drains into the thoracic duct everything other than arms, neck, and head
endothelial cell organization of lymphatic ducts loosely arranged with large gaps anchored by collagen
2 primary fxns of lymphatic ducts 1)return fluid and macromolecules to circulation 2)remove protein from interstitial spaces
3 secondary fxns of lymphatic ducts 1)phagocytic activity 2)antibody production 3)avenue for absorbing chylomicron (tri-glycerides) from intestine
hemodynamics affecting lymph flow capillary pressure and oncotic pressure
3 mechanical factors affecting lymph flow 1)muscle contraction 2)gut peristalsis 3)arterial pulsations
what happens to veins as temp increases increased distensibility
what do epi and norepi do to vein capacitance decrease capacitance
4 mechanisms that aid in venous return 1)valves 2)muscular pumping/milking 3)respiratory pump 4)venous tone via sympathetics (smooth muscle contraction)
DVT deep vein thrombosis; blood clots develop in deep veins (usually leg) from inability to milk blood back to heart
mean BP equation BP=Pd+1/3(Sys-Dia)
blood resistance equation Resistance=(P1-P2)/Flow
2 types of remote control on arterioles nervous and hormonal
2 types of local control on arterioles metabolic and myogenic
Beta 1 receptor locations, physiological activators, and responses heart (SA node, AV node, Ventricles); Norep, Epi, Dopa; Norep and Epi increase HR, conduction, and contractility; Dopa just increases contractility
Beta 2 receptor locations, physiological activators, and responses vascular smooth muscle in skeletal, coronary, and liver/splanchnic (also in muscle, kidney, and liver cells); epi, dopa, norepi (high conc. Req.); vasodilation, glycogenolysis, renin release
alpha 1 receptor locations, activators, and response postsynaptically in vascular smooth muscle in all organ systems; norepi, epi (high dose), dopa (high dose); vasoconstriction
alpha 2 receptor locations, activators, and response presynaptically on alpha motor neurons in all organ systems; epi, dopa, norepi (inhibitor); vasoconstriction
cholinergic receptor location, activator, and response all beds; acetylcholine; vasodilation
sympathetic cholinergic (via hypothalamus) receptor location, activator, and response skeletal muscle; acetylcholine; vasodilation
dopamine receptor locations and response renal, splanchnic, cerebral, skeletal, skin; vasodilation
beta 2 receptor affinity for epi and norepi much greater affinity for epi than norepi
overall effect of norepi vasoconstriction at all concentrations
overall effect of epi vasodilation at low concentrations (beta response) and vasoconstriction at high concentrations (alpha response)
equation to determine flow of blood through lung using O2 as indicator (ficke method) Flow=(O2 uptake)/(ArtO2/100ml-VenO2/100ml); this is on the test
how to measure cerebral blood flow modified ficke using nitrous oxide
4 features of cerebral blood flow 1)constant flow, 2)tight capillary jxns, 3)little anaerobic metabolism, 4)CSF pressure is 80% less than mean arterial perfusion pressure
effects of increased CO2 on CSF pH and then on cerebral flow more CO2 → lower CSF pH → higher cerebral blood flow
what happens to cerebral blood flow as arterial pressure increases increases at first and then flattens due to auto regulation by sympathetics
what happens to cerebral blood flow as cerebral spinal fluid pressure increases remains constant until the CSF pressure shuts the arteries and CBF pressure drops
what is the cushing reflex as the CSF pressure increases it hits a point where massive peripheral vasoconstriction occurs to ensure enough pressure in the spinal canal to keep CBF up
what disease causes high CSF pressure spinal meningitis
splanchnic blood flow equation infusion rate (mg/min)/[Conc.(artery)-Conc.(hepatic vein)]
portal system unique splanchnic plumbing system where the liver receives the venous drainage from other intestinal organs
significance of hepatic vein entire venous drainage of splanchnic (including liver) goes through the hepatic vein
dye used for modified ficke on splanchnic blood flow indocyanine green
normal splanchnic flow during rest 1000-1500 ml/min
what happens to splanchnic blood flow when arterial pressure rises? Why? splanchnic pressure rises because the stretch receptors inhibit the VMC, so the resistance stays low, increasing splanchnic pressure
O2, CO2, and pH must move in which way to give positive feedback to the VMC O2 decreases, CO2 increases, pH decreases
splanchnic blood flow decreases from what changes in BP, central blood volume, and VO2 max decreased blood pressure, decreased central blood volume, increased exercies
venous occlusion plethysmography way to measure skeletal muscle blood flow (crude); occlude veins but not arteries and see how fast volume increases
microsphere uptake way to measure skeletal muscle blood flow; only works on animals because they have smaller capillaries; give animal radioactive microspheres and see how fast they build up in different locations
the amount of blood flowing to a certain muscle depends on what activity, type of muscle (oxidative gets more), and number of mitochondria
what kind of feedback to the VMC do active skeletal muscle fibers send positive to enhance sympathetic activity
what muscle system is the only system to be innervated with hypothalamic sympathetic cholinergic neurons skeletal muscle system
what creates a peaked T wave on an EKG hyperkalemia
Created by: droid



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