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Urinary A&P

Lab Study STACK

Smooth membran, tightly adharent to the kidney surface fibrous capsule
Portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts minor calyx
Portion of the kidney containing the bulk of he nephron structures medulla
Superficial region of kidney tissue cortex
Basinlike area of the kidney, continuous with the ureter renal pelvis
a cup-shaped extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid minor calyx
Area of cortical tissue running between the medullary pyramids renal column
The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretes _______ waste metabolic
The kidney is a major homeostatic organ because it maintains the (1,2,3)balance of the blood electrolyte, acid base and fluid
Urine is continually formed by the ______ and is routed down the _____ by the mechanism of ______to a storage organ called the ______. kidney's, ureters, circulatory drainage, bladder
Eventually the urine is conducted to the body _____ by the urethra exterior
In the male, the urethra is ___cm and transports ________ and _________ 20cm, urine and semen
The female urethra is _____cm and transports only ________ 4cm, urine
Voiding or emptying the bladder is called micturition
Voiding has both voluntary and involuntary components. The voluntary sphincter is the ________ External uretral sphincter
An inability to control this sphincter is referred to as incontinence
What is the function of the fat cushion that surrounds the kidneys in life? They hold the kidneys in place
Define ptosis When the fatty material surrounding the kidneys is reduced the kidneys are less securely anchored and may drop to a more inferior position
Why is incontinence normal in a child under 2 yrs of age? They have not yet gained control over the voluntary sphincter
What events may lead to incontinence in an adult? Spinal cord injury, emotional problems, bladder irritability, urinary tract problems
site of filtration formation glomerulus
primary site of tubular reabsorption promximal convoluted tube
secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption distal convoluted tube
structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis collecting duct
blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubuar cels peritubular capillaries
it's inner (visceral)membrane forms part of he filtration membrane glomerular capsule
Explain why the glomerulus is such a high pressure capillary bed arterioles are high-resistance vessels and the afferent arteriole has a larger diameter than the efferent, the blood pressure in the glomerulus is high for a capillary bed and easily forces fluid and solutes out of the blood into the golmerular capsule
How does the high pressure condition in the glomerulus aid its function of filtrate formation? It forces fluid out & blood comp sm than proteins fr the glomerulus
What structural modifications of certain tubule cells enhances their ability to reabsorb substances from the filtrate? Microvilli..increases surface area
Explain the mechanism of tubular secretion & it's importance iin urine formation process It is the reverse of tubular absobtion and is important for the disposal of substances not in filtrate & is a device for controlling blood ph
Compare & contrast blood plasma & glomerular filtrate Both contain glucose, water, salt & nitrogenous waste, however in addition to those, plasma contains Red & White blood cells and blood proteins.
What is important functionally about the specialized (transitional epithelium) in the bladder? They have the ability to slide over one another thus decreasing the thickness of the mucosa layer as the bladder fills & stretches to accomodate incr. urine volume
Explain why urinalysis is a routine part of any good physical exam? Because finding any abnormal constituents may indicate pathology.
What substance is responsible for the normal yellow color of urine? urochrome
What has a great specific gravity 1 ml of urine or 1 ml of distilled water? Why? Urine; Because it has dissolved solvents so it weighs more.
Explain the relationship between color; specific gravity; and volume of urine Generally, the smaller the volume, the greater the specific gravity (more solutes) and the deeper the color.
Name three constituents that might be present if a urinary tract infection exists; White blood cells (pus), Red blood cells and casts
How does a urinary tract infection influence urine pH? High protein diet, increased acidity; vegetarian diet, increases alkalinity
How does starvation influence urine pH? it becomes acidic
All urine specimens become alkaline and cloudy on standing at room temperature. Why? Bacterial metabolism componensts.
Presence of erythrocytes in the urine is indicative of; hematuria
Presence of hemoglobin in the urine is indicative of: hemoglobinura
Presence of glucose in the urine is indicative of glucosoria
Presence of ketone bodies (acetone & others) in the urine are indicative of ketonuria
Presence of pus (WBC's) in the urine are indicative of pyuria
What are renal calculi, and what conditions favor their formation? Typically clled kidney stones, when urine gecomes excessively concentrated, some of it's solutes begin to crystallize.
Glucose and albumin are both normally absent in the urine, ? Glucose is reabsorbed by the kidney tubules into the bloodstream; Albumin is too large to fit thru the glomerular filtration membrane.
Name a condition associated with low specific gravity in the urine; diabetes isipidus
Name a condition associated with high specific gravityin the urine; diabetes mellitus,gonorrhea, pylonephritis
Name a condition/s associated with glucose in urine diabetes insipidus & mellitus, and eating a 5lb box of candy
Name a condition/s associated with albumin in the urine glomerulonephritis and pregnancy, exertion
Name a condition/s assoicated with blood in the urine cystitis (inflammation of bladder) kidney stones
Name a condition associated with hemoglobin in the urine hemolytic anemias
Name a condition associated with bilirubin in the urine hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver
Name a condition/s associated w/ketone bodies in the urine cystitis, starvation, diabetes mellitus
Name a condition/s associated w/casts in the urine glomerulonephritus, pylonephritis
Name a condition/s associated w/pus in the urine cystitis, gonorrhea, phylonephritis
Name three major nitrogenous wastes found in the urine. Urea, Uric Acid, Creatine
Describe organized sediments; Cell derived elements such as RBC's, pus casts, WBC's bacteria, epethelial cells are organized sediments
Describe unorganized sediments; Anythng that isn't a cell; eg crystals, pigment or precipitate from a solution.
Created by: 1624980995
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