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Ch 6 Microbial Grow

Ch 6: Microbial Nutrition and Growth

Acidophile This organism likes a low pH.
Superoxide dismutase SOD
Aerotolerantanaerobes An organism that does not use molecular oxygen, but is not affected by it
Agar A complex polysaccharide used as a solidifying agent in culture media
Alkalinophiles These organisms live in alkaline soils and water up to pH 11.5
Anaerobes These organisms cannot use molecular oxygen
Barophiles Organisms that live under extreme pressure
Binary Fission The means of bacterial reproduction
Biofilms Complex associations of large numbers of microorganisms, which are often different species that together attach to surfaces
Catalase An enzyme that degrades hydrogen peroxide to release water and oxygen
Chemoautotrophs These organisms use use carbon dioxide as a carbon source but obtain energy from redox reactions involving organic or inorganic molecules
Chemoheterotrophs These organisms use organic compounds for both energy and carbon.
Colony A visible mass of bacterial cells arising from one cell
Complex The exact chemical composition of this media varies from batch to batch and used for most heterotrophic bacteria
Culture Microbes that grow and multiply in or on a culture medium
Death phase The period of logarithmic decrease in a bacterial population
Defined Medium The exact chemical composition of this medium is known
Differential Media A solid culture medium that makes it easier to distinguish colonies of the desired organism
Exponential Growth The phase of the bacterial growth curve where generation time is constant
Extreme thermophiles Members of the Archaea that have an optimum growth temperature of 80C or higher
Generation time The time required for a population to double in number
growth curve A graph that plots the number of bacteria growing in a population over time
growth factors Small amounts of certain organic chemicals that they cannot synthesize
Halophiles Salt loving bacteria
Hydroxyl radicals Molecules resulting from ionizing radiation and from the incomplete reduction of hydrogen peroxide
Lag phase The time interval in a bacterial growth curve when there is no growth
lithotrophs These organisms acquire electrons from inorganic sources
Log phase Exponential growth
Lyophilization Freeze drying
Mesophiles These bacteria grow best between about 10C and 50C
Nutrient Any chemical required for growth of microbial populations
Obligate aerobes These microbes require oxygen as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain
Obligate anaerobe This type of anaerobe is killed in the presence of oxygen
Optimum growth temperature The temperature at which a species grows best
organotrophs These organisms acquire electrons from organic sources
Peroxidase An enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water.
Peroxide anion A component of hydrogen peroxide, which is formed during reactions catalyzed by superoxide dismutase
Photoautotrophs These organisms use carbon dioxide as a carbon source and use light as an energy source
Photoheterotrophs These organisms acquire energy from light and acquire nutrients via catabolism of organic compounds.
Plasmolysis Loss of water from a cell in a hypertonic environment
Psychro The prefix that means cold
quorum sensing A process in which bacteria respond to the density of nearby bacteria
Selective Media that is designed to suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and encourage the growth of desired microbes
Singlet Normal molecular oxygen that has been boosted into a higher energy state and is extremely reactive
Stationary phase The period in a bacterial growth curve when the number of cells dividing equals the number dying
sterile Free of any microbial contaminants
Superoxide radicals Molecules formed during the incomplete reduction of oxygen during electron transport in aerobes and during metabolism by anaerobes in the presence of oxygen
Thermophiles Heat loving bacteria
Traceelements A chemical element required in small amount for growth
Created by: drmicro