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ISSA Personal Training 9th Edition Unit 4

Abduction Movement of a body part away from the midline.
Adduction Movement of a body part toward the midline.
Antagonist Something opposing or resisting the action of another
Assistant Mover muscle that plays a secondary role of the prime mover.
Circumduction Movement of a part, e.g., an extremity in a circular direction.
Co-contraction When both the agonist and antagonist undergo contraction
Concentric contraction A type of muscle activation that increases on a muscle as it shortens
Dorsiflexion turning upward of the foot or toes or of the hand or fingers.
Eccentric Contration A type of muscle activation that increases tension as a muscle as it lengthens.
Eversion Turning outward, as of the sole of the foot. s
Extension An increases on the angle between two body segments, or the return from flexion.
Flexion a decrease in the angle between two body segments
Frontal Plane (Coronal) Separates the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Helping Synergy When two muscles contact together to create one movement.
Hyperextension inversion Extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit.
Isometric Contraction A muscle activation in which the muscle fires but there is no movement in ht joint and no change in length of the muscle.
Midline An imaginary longitudinal line that travels down the center of the body.
Neutralizer When a muscle contracts to counteract and undesirable action of another muscle.
Plantarflexion Extension of the ankle, pointing of the foot and toes.
Prime Mover Denoting a muscle in state of contraction, with reference to its opposing muscle, or antagonist.
Pronation (agonist) assuming a facedown position. Of the hand, turning the palm backward or downward. Of the foot, lowering the inner (medial) side of the foot so as to flatten the arch. The opposite of supination.
Rotation Circular movement of a body segment about a long axis.
Sagittal plane (anteroposterior) separates the body into right and left sections.
Stabilization The act of being stable or balanced.
Stabilizer Muscle that steadies or holds a body part in place.
Supination Assuming a horizontal positioning facing upward. In the case of the hand, it also means turning the palm face forward. The opposite of pronation.
Transverse Plane (horizontal) separates the body into superior and inferior sections.
True Synergy When a muscle contracts to stop the secondary action of another muscle.
Created by: pai2015.pi
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