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Metabolism

ISSA Personal Training 9th Edition Unit 1

Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) an organic compound in metabolism that functions in the transfer of energy during the catabolism of glucose, formed by the removal of a phosphate molecule from ATP and composed of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) An organic compound found in muscle which, upon being broken down enzymatically, yields energy for muscle contraction
Amino Acid The building blocks of protein. There are 24 amino acids, which form countless number of different proteins
Anabolism The building upon the body of complex chemical compounds from simpler compounds (proteins from amino acids)
Anaerobic Threshold The point where increasing energy demands of exercise cannot be met by the use of oxygen and an oxygen debt begins to be incurred
ATP/CP Pathway ATP and Cp provide anaerobic sources of phosphate-bond energy. The energy liberated from hydrolysis (splitting) of CP re-bonds ADP and Pi to form ATP
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) The minimum energy required to maintain the body's life function at rest; usually expressed in calories per hour per square meter of the body surface
Branched-chain Amino Acid (BCAAs) The amino acids l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and l-valine, which have a particular molecular structure that gives them their name and comprises 35 % of muscle tissue. The BCAAs help increase work capacity by stimulating production on insulin.
Calorie a unit of heat; specifically, it is the amount of energy required to raise the temperate of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius at 1 atmosphere
Catabolism The breaking down in the body of complex chemical compounds into simpler ones (proteins to amino acids)
Creatine Phosphate (CP) A high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to immediately resynthesizes ATP
Electron Transport Chain The passing of electrons over a membrane, aiding in a reaction to recover free energy for the synthesis of ATP
Fatty Acid Any of a large group of mono basic acids, especially those found in animal and vegetable fats and oils
Gluconeogenesis Chemical process that converts lactate and pyruvate back into glucose. When glucose (sugar stored in muscles) stores are low, glucose for emergency energy is synthesized from protein and the glycerol portion of fat molecules.
Glucose Principal circulating sigar in the blood and the major energy of the body
Glycolytic Pathway A metabolic process in which glucose is broken down to produce energy anaerobically
Homeostasis the automatic tendency to maintain a relative constant internal environment
Ketone Bodies Bodies produced as intermediate products of fat metabolism
Kilocalorie (kcal) A unit of measurement that equals 1,000 calories, or 1 Calorie. Used in metabolic studies, it is the amount of heat required to raise the temperate of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius at a press of 1 atmosphere.
Krebs Cycle Citric acid cycle; a set of 8 reactions, arranged in a cycle in which freee energy is recovered in the form of ATP
Lactic Acid A by-product of glucose and glycogen metabolism in anaerobic muscle energetics
Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2max) The highest rate of oxygen consumption which a person is capable
Metabolic Set Point The base rate of metabolism that the body seeks to maintain; resulting in basal metabolic rate
Metabolism The total of all the chemical and physical processes by which the body but;ds and maintains itself (anabolism) and by which it breaks down its substances for the production of energy ( catabolism)
Oxidation Th chemical act of combining with oxygen or of removing hydrogen
Oxidative Pathway A metabolic process in which oxygen combines that lactic acid, resynthesizing glycogen to produce energy aerobically
Pyruvate a byproduct of glycolysis
Respiratory Quotient (RQ) A method of deterring the "fuel mix" being used, giving us a way to measure the relative amounts of fats, carbs, and proteins being burned for energy
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) the amount of energy (calories) required to efficiently perform vital bodily functions such as respiration, organ function and heart rate while the body is awake, but at rest.
Thermic Effect The heat liberated from a particular food; it is a measure of it energy content and its tendency to be burned as heat. This process of heat liberation is also commonly referred to as "thermogenesis"
Training Effect an increase in functional capacity of muscles and other bodily tissues as a result of increased stress (overload) placed upon them
Type I Muscle Fibers (Slow Twitch) a muscle fiber characterized by its slow speed of contraction and a high capacity for aerobic glycolysis
Type II Muscle Fibers (Fast Twitch) Muscle fiber type that contracts quickly and is used mostly in intensive, short-duration exercises
Respiratory Quotient Formula RQ= Volume of CO2 expired / Volume of O2 utilized
Created by: pai2015.pi
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