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Microbiology

Chapter 5 Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
Why do all enzymatic reactions need activation energy? Energy allows only the substrate to bind
What is meant by the statement "enzymes are biological catalysts"? Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions in living cells
Why are enzymes important to biological systems? Enzymes decrease the amount of activation energy required for chemical reactions to occur.
Which of the following statements regarding metabolism is true Heat may be released in both anabolic and catabolic reactions, ATP is formed in catabolic reactions, ADP is formed in anabolic reactions
ATP is a common intermediate between ______and _____ pathways catabolic and anabolic
Anaerobic organisms are capable of generating ATP via respiration
ATP can be generated by the flow of protons across protein channels
Which of the following is true of anabolic reactions? Anabolic reactions break down complex organic compounds into simpler ones
True/False In general, ATP generated in catabolic pathways and expended in anabolic pathways True
True/False Catabolic reactions are generally degradative and hydrolytic. True
In metabolism, energy that is not used is given off as heat
The reactions involved in producing larger compounds from smaller compounds is called anabolism
Where does the energy required for anabolic reactions come from? Catabolic reactions
The use of amino acid make proteins Whis an example of anabolism
Which of he following compounds are enzymes? B-galactosidase, dehydrogenase, cellulase, and sucrase
Which of the following matches enzyme components with their correct definition and/or function? Coenzymes are the organic cofactors important to enzyme activity
True/False The use of enzymes is necessary to increase the activation energy requirements of a chemical reaction. False
The best definition of Oxidative Phosphorylation? A proton gradient allows hydrogen ions to flow back into the cells through transmembrane protein channels, releasing energy that is used to generate ATP
What is true about photophosphorylation The oxidation of carrier molecules releases energy, light liberates an electron from chlorophyll, energy from oxidation reactions is used to generate ATP from ADP, it occurs in photosynthesizing cells
What does photophosphorylation not require? CO2
Gallionella bacteria can get energy from the reaction Fe2+---Fe3+, this reaction is an example of Oxidation
What is true about anaerobic respiration? It requires cytochromes, it generates ATP, it yields lower amounts of ATP when compared to aerobic respiration, only part of Krebs cycle is utilized
What is the fate of pyruvic acid in an organism that uses aerobic respiration It is converted into acetyl CoA
A strictly fermentative bacterium produces energy by glycolysis only
The best definition of fermentation the partial oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors
What is NOT necessary for respiration oxygen
What IS necessary for respiration a source of electrons, quinones, flavoproteins, cytochromes
Assume you are responsible for growing a yeast culture that produces ethanol. The yeasts are growing well on the maltose medium but are not producing alcohol, why? O2 is in the medium
In cellular respiration of glucose, what are the three principle stages glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
Aerobic respiration compared to anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration uses oxygen as a final electron acceptor, whereas anaerobic respiration uses an inorganic molecule other than oxygen as the final electron acceptor (such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions, or rarely, an organic molecule
Which biochemical process is used during glycolysis carbohydrate catabolism, oxidation-reduction, substrate-level phosphorylation, enzymatic reaction
Which of the following is true about oxidation of proteins Enzymes break down proteins into component amino acids, the amino group is removed through deamination and converted to nitrogenous waste, such as NH4+, after deamination of the protein, the organic acid enter the Krebs cycle
This is true of Lipid oxidation Microbes produce extracellular enzymes to reduce proteins to their fatty acid and glycerol components so that each component can enter the Krebs cycle
If a pure culture of E. coli and Shigella was placed in a tube containing lactose as the only food source and a chemical indicator changed color after a pH change, what would the tubes look like after the bacteria were incubated? The tube with E coli would indicate a pH change, and the Shigella tube would indicate no change
In noncyclic photophosphorylation, O2 is released from water (H2O)
True / False Carbon fixation occurs during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis. True
True / False Both respiration and photosynthesis require the use of an electron transport chain True
Match chemoheterotroph glucose
Match photoheterotroph light
Match chemoautotroph NH3
Match Chemoautotroph Fe2+
Which of the following uses CO2 for carbon and H2 for energy? chemoautotroph
Which of the following uses glucose for carbon and energy? chemoheterotroph
Cyanobacteria are a type of photoautotroph
Which refers to pathways that can function both in anabolism and catabolism amphibolic pathways
STEP 1 cellular respiration Inputs: 1-glucose(fuel) +6 -O2 (gas we inhale)
STEP 2 cellular respiration Outputs: 6-CO2(gas we exhale)+6-H2O (water)+ ATP (energy packets that cells use to do work)
STEP 1 photosynthesis Inputs: 6- CO2(source of carbon & oxygen) +6-H2O (source of electrons & hydrogen) + light (energy that drives photosynthesis)
STEP 2 photosynthesis Outputs: glucose(sugar) +6-O2 (gas produced from splitting water)
Catabolism is Catabolic reactions are exergonic; they break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones
The chemical reactions involved in synthesizing proteins and cell wall peptidoglycan are example of anabolic reactions
This is true about enzymes Each enzyme has a characteristic three-dimensional shape
This is true about glucose metabolism Pyruvic acid, the product of glycolysis, is the starting block for both the Krebs cycle and fermentation
The complete oxidation (catabolism) of glucose typically involves three stages. The greatest number of ATP's is produced in which stage the electron transport chain
Which of the following molecules carry electrons during various stages of glucose catabolism NADH and FADH2
Which of the following four stages of glucose oxidation during aerobic respiration requires molecular oxygen oxidative phosphoraylation
Fermentation differs from anaerobic respiration in that fermentation does NOT use an electron transport chain
Like glucose, amino acids are catabolized for energy, but these must be converted to a form in which they can enter the Krebs cycle for oxidation. All of the following reactions occur in the catabolism of amino acids EXCEPT carbon fixation
All of the following reactions occur in catabolism of amino acids deamination, decarboxylation, dehydrogenation
You inoculate a bacterial culture into a tube containing glucose and peptides. The pH indicator shows that the pH decreased after 24 hours and then increased 48 hours. What has caused the increase in pH Deamination
When fermentation tests are used to help identify bacteria, which of the following end products is typically detected by color change acid
Carbon fixation occurs during photosynthesis
Which of the following are products of noncyclic photophosphorylation reactions in oxygenic organisms O2, ATP, and NADPH
During the light independent reaction of photosynthesis, organisms synthesize sugars
Which of the following molecules traps energy released during oxidation-reduction reactions ATP
Nitrobacter bacteria use carbon dioxide for their carbon source and nitrate ions as an energy source. This organism is a chemolithoautotroph
Which group of group of organisms has members representing each of the following nutritional classifications: chemoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, and photoautotrophs bacteria
Some amino acids are synthesized by adding an amine group to pyruvic acid or to one of the Krebs cycle intermediates. This process is known as amination
Which of the following terms refers to pathways that can function in both anabolism and catabolism amphibolic pathways
Created by: sillylilia