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What is purpose of sputum as a specimen? for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections
What are the common pathogens found in lower respiratory tract infection? 1.Streptococcus penumoniae 2.Haemophilius influenzae 3.Mycobacterium tuberculosis
What is the purpose of throat swab? for diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections
What are the common pathogens found in upper respiratory tract infect? 1.Streptococcus pyogenes 2.Corynebacterium diphtheriae 3.Candida albicans 4.Bordetella pertussis
What is the macroscopic appearance of sputum? 1.mucous 2.purulent 3.mucopurulent 4.bloody
What is used to digest mucus in sputum? sputolysin (N-acetyl-L-cysteine)
What is the function of chocolate agar? 1.a blood agar, but with RBC have been lysed by slowly heating to 80°C 2.for growing fastidious respiratory bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.
What is the function of MacConky agar? 1. selectively isolate Gram-negative and enteric (normally found in the intestinal tract) bacilli 2. differentiate them based on lactose fermentation 3.no growth of Gram-positive bacteria and fastidious Gram-negative bacteria
What is blood agar? 1.an enriched, bacterial growth medium. Fastidious organisms, such as streptococci 2.5% sheep blood 3.contains X factor(Hemin)
For sputum, first do ________ then culture ? Direct Gram smear stain
For throat swab, direct culture on _____ is enough. Blood Agar, incubate at 37C in 5% of CO 2
What is morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae? 1.mucoid 2.umbilicated 3.alpha hemolytic 4.Optochin sensitive
What is the gram stain observation of Streptococcus pneumoniae? 1.Gram positive cocci 2.In pair
What the gram stain observation for Streptococcus pyogenes? 1.Gram positive cocci 2.In chain
What is the morphology of Streptococcus pyogenes? 1.beta heamolytic 2.bacitracin sensitive
What is the gram statin observation for Heamophilius influenzae? 1.Gram negative coccobacilli
What makes Chocolate agar so suitable for Haemophilius influenzae? Chocolate agar has: 1.X factor: Hemin 2.V factor: NAD(Vitamin B)
What is the gram stain observation for Klebsiella species? 1.Gram negative rod 2.mucoid
What is the observation of Klebsiella spp from MacConky agar? 1.Pink 2.Lactose fermenter
What is the Causative agent of whooping cough? Bordetella pertussis
What is the gram stain observation for Bordetella pertussis? Gram negative coccobacilli
Is Bordetella pertussis obligate aerobe? Yes
What are the special media for Bordetella pertussis? 1.Bordet-Gengou (potato-glycerol blood agar) 2.Regan-Lowe agar (charcoal agar + 10% horse blood + cephalexin)
What is the growth condition for Bordetella pertussis? 35°C, CO2 with excess moisture, 3-4 days
What is the confirmatory ID test for Bordetella pertussis Antibody agglutination
What is the Causative agent of diphtheria? Corynebacterium diphtheriae
What is the gram stain observation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae? 1.Gram positive short rods 2. Chinese character, "八"
Is Corynebacterium diphtheriae facultative anaerobes? Yes
What are the specimen for Bordetella pertussis? 1.pernasal nasopharyngeal swabs collected in charcoal transport medium 2.cough plate
What is the specimen for Corynebacterium diphtheriae? Throat swab
What can be observed from blood agar of Corynebacterium diphtheriae? medium size, greyish, circular, convex
What is the special stain for corynebacterium diphtheriae? Albert's stain
What is Albert's stain about? 1.a differential stain 2.staining the volutin granules 3.green colored, rod shaped
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is catalase ___1____ and oxidase ___2____. 1.positive 2.negative
What can be observed from Ziehl-Neelsen stain on direct smear of Mycobacterium tuberculosis? red bacilli, rod shape
What can be observed from Auramine O stain on direct smear of Mycobacterium tuberculosis? yellow fluorescence, rod shape
What is the purpose of using NaOH to pretreat the MTB specimen? 1. decontamination 2. NaOH can remove normal flora
What is the culture medium for MTB? Lowenstein-Jensen medium
What can be observed from Lowenstein-Jensen medium of MTB? buff-coloured & rough colonies
What is the culture condition of MTB on LJ medium? Incubate 37°C for 6-8 weeks
Created by: kencho