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Human Embryo

A&P II - Human Embryonic Development

QuestionAnswer
how long can sperm survive in the female reproductive tract 48-72 hours
where does fertilization occur in the female the ampulla of the fallopian tube
how long does it take for the sperm to travel to the location of fertilization (ampulla of fallopian tube) 10 hours
how long is a oocyte fertile after ovulation 24 hours
in order to penetrate the oocyte, the sperm must first penetrate the ____________ _________________ corona radiata
what is the acrsome reaction when enzymes digest barriers in the zona pellucida
what is the corona radiata ov the oocyte the innermost layer of follicular cells that surround an oocyte in the fallopian tube
what is the zona pellucida al layer of glycoproteins that surround the ovum
how does the fertilized ovum prevent other sperm from penetrating the zona pellucida (polyspermic fertilization) cortical reaction
what is cortical reaction the zona pellucida hardens itself to the incoming sperm helping to prevent polyspermic fertilization.
when does a oocyte become a zygote a zygote is formed when the nucleus of the sperm and the nucleus of the oocyte combine
what is cleavage the rapid mitotic cell division after the fertilization
what is the rapid mitotic cell division (without cell growth) that subdivides the cytoplasm of a zygote cleavage
what are the daughter cells of cleavage called blastomeres
the zona pellucida (remains around the entire group of dividing cells/remains around each individual cell ) remains around the entire group of dividing cells
the morula occurs around day ______ after fertilization three
the morula is a (solid ball/hollow sphere) of cells that occurs 3 days after fertilization solid ball
what is the minimum number of cells in a morula 16
at about what day does the mortula hatch into a blastocyst four or five
name the phase at which an embryo becomes a hollow, fluid-filled sphere blastocyst
what are the three parts of a blastocyst trophoblast, inner cells mass, blastocoele
what is the trophoblast the outer layer of cells in a blastocyst
out of the three parts of the blastocyst, which one takes part in the placenta formation trophoblast
out of the three parts of the blastocyst, which one takes part in the becomes the embryo inner cell mass
out of the three parts of the blastocyst, what is the name of the fluid filled cavity blastocoele
at about what days does implantation occur day 6 or 7
name the event when the trophoblast will adhere to the endometrium implantation
during the implantation phase of pregnancy which way does the inner cell mass of a blastocyst face towards the uterine wall
after implantation , the trophoblast cells proliferate and form what two distinct layers syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast
what is the syncytotrophoblast the cells on the perimeter of the trophoblast that are touching the endometrium
after implantation, what is the cytotrophoblast the cells on the interior of the trophoblast that retain their cell boundaries
what cells create the finger-like extensions that help to anchor the blastocyst to the endometrium of the uterus syncytiotrophoblast
the cells of the (syncytiotrophoblast/cytotrophoblast) have cytoplasm containing multiple nuclei syncytiotrophoblast
name the enzyme that is secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast hyaluronidase
what is the function of hyaluronidase erodes a path in the uterin endometrium
name the hormone secreted by the embryo after implantation human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
what is the function of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) to maintain the viability of the corpus luteum , CL continues to secrete progesterone and estrogen
at what point does the placenta assume the role of progesterone and estrogen production sometime between the second and third month
what are the extension of the cytotrophoblasts that are covered with syncytiotrophoblast that extend into the lacunae chorionic villi
at about 3 months, maternal blood exchange occurs through what structures chorionic villi
what structure of a blastocyst eventually forms into the embryonic disc inner cell mass
what is the embryonic disc when the inner cell mass organizes itself into two layers
name the two cell layers of the embryonic disc ectoderm and endoderm
in the embryonic disc, which cell layer is closest to the attachment of the trophoblast ectoderm
in the embryonic disc, which cell layer is closest to the blastocyst endoderm
after implantation, the embryonic disc forms and moves away from the chorionic villi to form the ___________________ __________________ amniotic cavity
name the fluid and membranes ill surround and cushion the developing embryo and fetus amnion
the yolk sac and the amniotic cavity (are the same/art different) structures during early embryonic development are different structures
when does the yolk sac begin to form as the endodermal surround the outer edges of the blastocoele during implantation
gastrulation generally results in a third layer cells in the embryonic disk called mesoderm
what is the primitive streak raised dorsal grove that establishes the longitudinal axis of the embryo
what phase of embryonic development sets the stage for organogenesis gastrulation
what stage of embryo development leads to the formation of body organs organogenesis
what two major things happen dring gastrulation organogenesis and primitive streak
name the outpocketing at the caudal end of the yolk sac allantois
what forms the structural base for the umbilical cord allantois
what membrane eventually becomes the urinary bladder allantois
the ______________ eventually becomes the embryonic contribution to the placenta chorion
chorion is derived from the trophoblasts and mesoderm lining and contains __________________ _________________ chorionic vili
what are the functions of the primary germ layers primitive tissues from which all body organs are derived
what does the endoderm eventually become epithelial lining (including GI track, lower respiratory, urinary and all ducts)
what does the ectoderm eventually become nervous system, skin, lining of mouth and anus, seneory organs (eyes and tongue)
what tissues does the mesoderm become muscle, bone, cartilage, blood, kidneys, and other lining of body cavities
what bodily systems/organs have significantly formed after week 4 (or 1 month ) of fertilization nervous, heart, body, placenta
at what point after fertilization does the embryo start receiving nutrients through the placenta 28 days=4 weeks = 1 month
what two tissues combine to form the placenta chorion (embryo) & stratums functionalis (uterus)
how is the placenta formed chorionic villi extends into maternal blood filled intervillous spaces
meternal & fetal blood vessels (do/do not) join and their blood (does/does not) mix maternal & fetal blood vessels DO NOT join and blood DOES NOT mix
what organ during pregnancy allows for diffusion of gases, nutrients, and wastes placenta
what organ during pregnancy stores hormones and nutrients placenta
what creates a barrier to microogranisms during pregnancy placenta
what kind of microorganism are not kept out of the placenta during pregnancy AIDS, measles, chicken pox, polio, and encephalitis
during pregnancy the umbilical vein carries _______________ (to/away from) the fetus oxygenated/nutrient rich blood to the fetus from the placenta
during pregnancy the umbilical arteries carries _______________ (to/away from) the fetus deoxygenated/nutrient poor blood from the fetus to the placenta
what is the funcion of the umbilical cord connect embryo/fetus to the placenta
what does the umbilical cord contain 2 arteries and one vein
name all the hormones that are produced by the placenta during pregnancy human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), human Placental Lactogen (hPL), Placental Prolactin, relaxin, progesterone and estrogen
what is the function of hCG in pregnancy maintain integrity of corpus luteum and promotes secretion of progesterone
what is the fuctions of human placental lactogen and placental prolactin prepare mammary glands for milk production
what is the main function of relaxin relaxes connective tissue of pelvis and cervicx
what is a minor function of relaxin supresses release of oxytocin by hypothalamus
what is the function of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy maintain endometrial lining
what is normal fetal period begin 9 weeks
what makes fetal period different from embryo period have all major organs established, a time of growth
how long is gestation 40 weeks from 1st day of last uterine cycle.
Created by: kandriot