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AP CSP

AP CSP words to know

TermDefinition
Abstraction a simplified representation of something more complex. Abstractions allow you to hide details to help you manage complexity, focus on relevant concepts, and reason about problems at a higher level.
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange; the universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand
Binary A way of representing information using only two options.
Bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. e.g. 8 bits/sec.
Bit A contraction of "Binary Digit"; the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1
DNS short for Domain Name System, this system translates domain names (like example.com) to IP addresses (like 93.184.216.34)
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol - the protocol used for transmitting web pages over the Internet
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force - develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards and protocols, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
Innovation A new or improved idea, device, product, etc, or the development thereof
Internet A group of computers and servers that are connected to each other.
IP Address A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet.
Latency Time it takes for a bit to travel from its sender to its receiver.
Net Neutrality the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers.
Network Redundancy having multiple backups to ensure reliability during cases of high usage or failure
Packets Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information.
Protocol A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices.
Router A type of computer that forwards data across a network
TCP Transmission Control Protocol - provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet. TCP is tightly linked with IP and usually seen as TCP/IP in writing.
URL An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like www.code.org).
Heuristic a problem solving approach (algorithm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible.
Hexadecimal A base-16 number system that uses sixteen distinct symbols 0-9 and A-F to represent numbers from 0 to 15.
Image A type of data used for graphics or pictures.
Lossless Compression a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.
Lossy Compression (or irreversible compression) a data compression method that uses inexact approximations, discarding some data to represent the content. Most commonly seen in image formats like .jpg.
metadata is data that describes other data. For example, a digital image may include metadata that describe the size of the image, number of colors, or resolution.
Pixel short for "picture element", the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot that contains a single point of color of a larger image.
RGB the RGB color model uses varying intensities of (R)ed, (G)reen, and (B)lue light are added together in to reproduce a broad array of colors.
Antivirus Software usually keeps big lists of known viruses and scans your computer looking for the virus programs in order to get rid of them.
asymmetric encryption used in public key encryption, it is scheme in which the key to encrypt data is different from the key to decrypt.
Big Data a broad term for datasets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate.
Caesar Cipher a technique for encryption that shifts the alphabet by some number of characters
Cipher the generic term for a technique (or algorithm) that performs encryption
Computationally Hard a "hard' problem for a computer is one in which it cannot arrive at a solution in a reasonable amount of time.
Cracking encryption When you attempt to decode a secret message without knowing all the specifics of the cipher, you are trying to "crack" the encryption.
DDoS Attack Distributed Denial of Service Attack. Typically a virus installed on many computers (thousands) activate at the same time and flood a target with traffic to the point the server becomes overwhelmed.
Decryption a process that reverses encryption, taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text
Encryption a process of encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it.
Firewall software that runs on servers (often routers) that only allows traffic through according to some set of security rules.
modulo a mathematical operation that returns the remainder after integer division. Example 7 MOD 4 = 3
Moore's Law a predication made by Gordon Moore in 1965 that computing power will double every 1.5-2 years, it has remained more or less true ever since.
One-pager A business/corporate term for a one-page document that summarizes a large issue, topic or plan.
Phishing Scam a thief trying to trick you into sending them sensitive information. Typically these include emails about system updates asking you send your username and password, social security number or other things.
Private Key In an asymmetric encryption scheme the decryption key is kept private and never shared, so only the intended recipient has the ability to decrypt a message that has been encrypted with a public key.
Public Key Encryption Used prevalently on the web, It uses an asymmetric encryption scheme in which the encryption key is made public, but the decryption key is kept private.
Random Substitution Cipher an encryption technique that maps each letter of the alphabet to a randomly chosen other letters of the alphabet.
SSL/TLS Secure Sockets layer / Transport Layer Security - An encryption layer of HTTP that uses public key cryptography to establish a secure connection.
Virus a program that runs on a computer to do something the owner of the computer does not intend.
Created by: damato