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Sookdeo:Bio,Ch2

Properties of Water, Macromolecules and Enzymes

TermDefinition
hydrogen bond weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and another atom that is slightly negative
cohesion attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion force of attraction between different kinds of molecule
mixture two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
solution mixture in which all of the components are evenly distributed
solute substance that is dissolved in a solution
solvent dissolving substance in a solution
suspension mixture of water and nondissolved material
pH scale scale with values from 0-14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
acid compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; a pH of less than 7
base compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution; a pH of greater than 7
buffer a compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH
polar molecule the distribution of electrons between the covalently bonded atoms is not even; H2O
nonpolar molecule atoms bond together to form molecules where electrons are shared equally by the atoms
surface tension the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer
macromolecule large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic molecules; monomers that form covalent bonds to form polymers; 4 groups are proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids.
monomer a molecule that bond to form a polymer
carbohydrate compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the body
lipid macromolecule made up mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils and waxes
nucleotide subunit of nucleic acid ; 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen base
nucleic acid macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus
protein macromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen; needed for growth and repair
amino acid compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end; 9 acids you get through diet for protein synthesis; tissue repair and nutrient absorption
polymer molecule composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
atoms basic unit of matter
molecules smallest unit of most compounds that displays properties of that compound
electron negatively charged particles located in the space surrounding the nucleus
element pure substance that consist of one type of atom
isotope single element containing same number of protons but different number of neutrons
compound substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
ionic bonding chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
ion atom that has a positive or negative charge
covalent bond bond between atoms where the electrons are shared
van der Waals forces slight attraction between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
nucleus in an atom, the center where you find the protons and neutrons
mass body of matter with no definite shape
neutron subatomic particle about the same mass as a proton without an electric charge
proton subatomic particle in atomic nuclei with a positive electric charge
H2O water molecule, two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
O2 chemical element with two atoms of oxygen
CO2 chemical compound with one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms
chemical reaction process that changes or transforms one set of compounds into another
reactant element or compound that engage in the chemical reaction
products element or compound produced by a chemical compound
activation energy energy needed to get a reaction started
catalyst substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzymes biological catalyst; most enzymes are proteins
substrate reactants of enzyme-catalyse reactions
active site region where the substrate binds to the enzyme
Created by: dsookdeo
 

 



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