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MLT-Antimicrobial

Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
Antimicrobial agents can be further classified as ? 1.Antibacterial, eg. Penicillin 2.Antiviral, eg. Tamiflu 3.Antifungal, eg. Amorolfine 4.Antiprotozoan, eg. Metronidazole
What is the mode of action of antibiotic? 1.Bacteriocidal: Kill 2.Bacteriostatis: Inhibit
What are the 5 classification of antibiotics? 1.Inhibition of cell wall synthesis 2.Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis 3.Inhibition of protein synthesis 4.Disruption of cytoplasmic membrane 5.Inhibition of general metabolic pathway
Whats the example of antibiotics that Inhibit cell wall synthesis? 1.beta lactam 2.Vancomycin 3.Bacitracin
Whats the example of antibiotics that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis? 1.Quinlones 2.Rifampicin
Whats the example of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis? 1.Aminoglycosides 2.Macrolides 3.Oxozolidinones
Whats the example of antibiotics that inhibit general metabolic pathway? 1.Sulfonamides 2.Trimethoprim
Whats the example of antibiotics that disrupt cytoplasmic membrane? Polymyxins
Whats the mechanism of beta-lactam ring? 1. It mimic the subunit of peptidoglycan 2. Bind to Penicillin Binding Protein which promotes cross-linking 3. Cell wall then disrupt, and cell lyzes
What are the 4 major groups of beta-lactam ring? 1.Penicillins 2.Cephalosporins 3.Carbapenems 4.Monobactams
Who discovred first antibiotics, Penicillin G? Alexander Fleming at 1928
What enzyme makes Staphylococcus aureus resistant to natural penicillin ? Penicillinase
Penicillin are usually effective in against Gram _________ bacterial and example? Positive, eg. GBS, Strepto. pyogenes
What is the new penicillin developed for Staph. aureus? Penicillinase-resistant Semisynthetic Penicillins
What makes Penicillinase-resistant Semisynthetic Penicillins (PRSPs)special? R group of Penicillin has been replaced by Methicillin
Any other structural derivatives Penicillin that based on Methicillin ? 1.Oxacillin 2.Cloxacillin 3.Dicloxacillin
Which Penicillin derivative is usded for laboratory susceptibility test? Oxacillin
A and B now are resistant to PRSPs, what are they? A.S.aureus (MRSA) B.S.epidermidis (MRSE)
What are the broad spectrum penicillins that can act on gram positive and gram negative bacteria? 1.Ampicillin 2.Amoxycillin
Which bacterial is naturally resistant to broad spectrum penicillin and why? Pseudomonas, it has AmpC β-lactamase to cleave beta-lactam ring
What are the anti-pseudomonal penicillins? 1.Piperacillin 2.Ticarcillin
Piperacillin/ ticarcillin can also be used to treat gram ____A____ and ____B_____ bacteria? A. negative 2.anaerobic
What is the difference between Cephalosporin group and the penicillin group? Cephalosporin group: 6-C ring + beta-lactam ring Penicillin group: 5-C ring + beta-lactam ring
How many generations of Cephalosporins? 5
What are the 1st generation Cephalosporins developed for A and B? Cephalothin, cephalexin A:Staphylococci B:Streptococci
MRSA, MRSE and Enterococci are resistant to all ________ generation of Cephalosporins drug? 1st to 3rd
What are the examples of 4th generation of Cephalosporins? Cefepime
What makes Cefepime so useful (3 reasons) 1.Broad spectrum, effect on both gram positive and gram negative bacteria 2.Used against Pseudomonas 3.Can penetrate blood brain barrier, good for meningitis treatment
What is the example of the 5th Cephalosporins? Ceftobiprole
Why Ceftobiprole is powerful? 1.Potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudmonas, MRSAand also VRE 2.But still under clinical trial
What are the 3 cell wall inhibitors antibiotics? 1.Penicillins 2.Cephalosporins 3.Carbapenems
Among the cell wall inhibitors, which one has the broadest antibacterial spectrum (gram positive and gram negative)? Carbapenems
Which enzyme will lead to resistance of Carbapenen Carbapenemase
What is the example of Carbapenemase? New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1)
What is the beta-lactamase inhibitor antibiotics? Clavulanic acid
What is the example of cell wall inhibitor antibiotics and why? Vancomycin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis
What is most effect antibiotics against MRSA? Vancomycin
What are the examples of Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor antibiotics? Fluoroquinolones: Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin
What is the mechanism of fluoroquinolones? 1.Inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV which is responsible for DNA replication and unwinding. 2.Lead to termination of chromosome replication
What _____% Neisseria gonorrhoeae is resistant to fluoroquinolones? 50
What are the examples of Anti-protein Synthetic Agent? 1.Aminoglycosides 2.Marcolides 3.Clindamycin 4.Oxazolidinones
What are the examples of aminoglycosides? Streptomycin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin
What is the mechanism of aminoglycosides? 1.Bactericidal to aerobicGram negatives and S.aureus 2.Bind irreversibly to 30S ribosomal subunits 3.Cause misread of genetic code 4.Produce non-sense protein
What are the examples of Macrolides? Erythromycin, Azithromycin, clarithromycin
What is the mechanisms of macrolides? 1.Bacteriostatic to Gram positives and Haemophilus influenzae 2.Bind reversibly to 50S ribosomal subunits 3.Block the elongation
What is the mechanism of Clindamycin? 1.Bacteriostatic to Gram positive cocci and anaerobic Gram negative 2.Bind reversibly to 50S ribosomal subunits
What is the example of Oxazolidinones? Linezolid
What is the mechanisms of Oxazolidinones? 1.Bacteriostatic to aerobic and anaerobicGram positive bacteria 2.Preventing the formation of the initiation complex 3.By reversibly binding to 50S ribosomal subunits
Oxazolidinones is approved to treat A and B? Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci and MRSA
What are the examples of Inhibition of general metabolic pathway? Cotrimoxazole
What are the examples of Cotrimoxazole? Sulphonamidesand Trimethoprim
What is the mechanism of Cotrimoxazole? Block folate metabolic pathway-needed for purine and pyrimidine formation
What are the three interaction of antibiotics and example pairs? 1.Additive 2.Synergistive (Cephalosporin / penicillin + Clavulanic acid) 3.Antagonistic (Erythromycin and Clindamycin)
Created by: kencho