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Rhetorical Terms

Audience the person or people who are reading the text Example: The teacher's audience are the students
Concession the acknowledgment of a point made by an opponent
Connotation a feeling or idea that a reader associates with a word beyond it's actual meaning Example: There is a guest in my home. (positive) There is an intruder in my home. (negative)
Context the circumstances, environment, background or setting that specifies the meaning of a text Example: words that help determine the tense of a word; the history surrounding a story
Counterargument an argument put forward to oppose an idea developed in another argument Example: Argument: Having a pet reduces stress. Counterargument: having to care for a pet is stressful.
Ethos a rhetorical appeal that a speaker uses to gain credibility and trust Example: As your doctor, I recommend that you use this medication.
Logos a rhetorical appeal that uses logic, reason, statistics, and facts to persuade the audience Example: 95% of students passed all of their classes.
Occasion the time and place a text was written or a speech was given Example: A speech given to someone on their birthday. (the occasion would be the birthday)
Pathos a rhetorical appeal that appeals to the audience's emotions (values, hopes, fears). Example: He was diagnosed with a chronic illness, but that didn't stop him from living life to the fullest.
Persona a mask that a speaker presents to his or her audience Example: A rich celebrity wanting to present his or her self as an average person.
Polemic an aggressive argument; an argument that tries to be superior to all other opinions Example: an attack on someone's beliefs or opinions
Propaganda information that is often misleading, such as rumors or lies, and is used to promote a cause Example: an advertisement to get people to fight in World War Two
Purpose the intentions of the writer; the goal a speaker wants to achieve Example: to persuade, to entertain, to inform
Refutation a statement that says another statement is false or not valid
Rhetoric the art of persuasion
Rhetorical Appeals devices used to persuade by talking about what they may find most important Examples: Logos, Pathos, Ethos
Rhetorical Triangle a diagram that shows the relationship between the speaker, Audience, and subject
SOAPS a device that helps to remember what makes up a rhetorical situation Stands for: Subject, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, and Speaker
Speaker the person who creates a speech or text Example: the person giving the message
Subject the topic in the text; what the text is about
Text a product that can be observed and comprehended Example: written word, art, pictures, fashion, performances,
Alliteration the repetition of the same sound at the beginning of twp or more words in a line Example: There was a big brown bear.
allusion a reference to a person, place, or a work of art Example:
Anaphora the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning multiple lines Example: THIS land, THIS home, THIS room...
Antimetabole the repetition of a sentence in a reverse order Example: Ask not what your country can do for you- ask what you can do for your country
Antithesis contrast of ideas or words in a parallel construction Example: support any friend, oppose any enemy
Archaic diction old-fashioned word choice Example: "shalt" "maketh"
Asyndeton the absence of conjunctions between parts of a sentence Example: "I came. I saw."
Cumulative sentence the main idea is stated at the beginning of a sentence and then builds and adds on as the sentence continues
Hortative sentence exhorts, urges, entreats, implores, or calls to action
Imperative sentence issue a command or instruction, make a request, or offer advice
Inversion normal order of words is reversed to achieve a particular effect Example:
Juxtaposition placing things closely together to emphasize similarities or differences Example: All's fair in love and war.
Metaphor comparing two things without using like or as. Example: The snow is a white blanket on the ground.
Oxymoron juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict each other Example: alone together
Parallelism balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure
Periodic sentence sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end
Personification giving lifelike qualities to inanimate objects or ideas
Rhetorical question figure of speech in the form of a question meant for rhetorical effect rather than getting an answer
Synedoche figure of speech that uses a part to represent the whole
Zeugma use of two words in a grammatically similar way that produces different meanings
Chiasmus reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses – but no repetition of words
Epistrophe repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences
Hypophora figure of speech in which the speaker poses a question and then answers the question
Apostrophe a punctuation mark ( ’ ) used to indicate either possession or the omission of letters or numbers
Irony what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case
Pun (Paronomasia) a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect
Litotes figure of speech and form of verbal irony in which understatement is used to emphasize a point by stating a negative to further affirm a positive, often incorporating double negatives for effect
Paradox logical statement that seems to contradict itself
Created by: jennak_8



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