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Endocrine System

A&P II - Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
which form of cellular communication involves the direct exchange of molecules and ions via gap junctions direct communication
name three important aspect of gap functions 1) coordination of ciliary movement, 2) coordination of heart contractions, 3) facilitated propagation of action potential
what usually moves through gap junctions, that facilitates direct cellular communication ions, small solutes, lipid soluble material
what is paracrine communication when one cell releases a chemical into extracellular fluid and another cell receives these chemicals via extracellular fluid
name two set backs with Paracrine communication 1) highly specialized, 2) usually within the same tissue
what is the function of paracrines telling your neighbors what you are doing.
name an example of a paracrine, its function, and the gland it comes from somatostatin, decreases the release of insulin, from the pancreas
what type of chemical communication system that is limited to the same cell that just excreted the chemical messenger autocrine
name an autocrine and its function prostaglandins, used for smooth muscle contractions
what is the name of the chemical messengers that are used in the endocrine system hormones
what is the functions of hormones to relay information between cells that are distant
how are hormones transported through the blood stream
how do hormones detect their specific target cell the target cell has specific receptors that can detect the necessary hormone
what is synaptic communication communication that is relayed through a synapse instead of sending messages via the blood stream (i.e. nervous system) and neuron is very close to the target cell
what system uses synaptic communication nervous system
name the chemicals that are released in a synapse neurotransmitter
compared to the endocrine system, in synaptic communication, travel time is very rapid, or "high speed"
the (endocrine, synaptic) communication uses the propagation of action potential along an axon synaptic communication
the (endocrine, synaptic) communication has highly specific destinations synaptic communication
what are the main cells/organs used in the endocrine system glands
what are the main cells/organs used in the nervous system neurons
what is the name of the chemical used to communicate messaged in endocrine and nervous system (respectively) hormone and neurotransmitter
the (endocrine, synaptic) communication is slower acting and the effects can last for days endocrine communication
the (endocrine, synaptic) communication is responsible for processes such as growth, development, and metabolic activities endocrine communication
the (endocrine, synaptic) communcation is responsible for crisis management synaptic communication
which system is best used for short-lived, split-second decisions nervous system
the (endocrine/nervous/both) system(s) rely on chemical release, use specific receptors in target cells, and are regulated by negative feed back system both
what three neurotransmitters are used as hormones epinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine.
what is the goal of both the endocrine and nervous system to maintain homeostasis
name the 5 major processes of hormonal processes 1) growth/development, 2) reproduction, 3) regulate cell metabolism, 4) regulate blood and ion concentrations, 5) mobilization of bodily defenses
what are endocrine organs glandular (ductless) secretory cells that secrete hormones into the blood stream.
what is the difference between exocrine organs and endocrine organs exocrine organs secrete on to external surfaces (including GI surfaces) via a duct system.
______________ dictates how the hormone behaves composition
name the three classifications of hormones 1) amino acid, 2) peptide, 3) lipid
name the two types of amino acid hormones tyrosine and tryptophan
name two classes of hormones that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine thyroid hormones and catecholmines
amino acid derived hormones (can/cannot) pass through the membrane of a cell cannot
what hormones are derived from tryptophan, and what do they control melatonin (sleep cycle) and seratonin
define a peptide hormone a peptide is a chain of amino acids, therefore it is a chain of amino acids that become glucoproteins
name at seven peptide hormones 1) insulin, 2) GH, 3) ADH, 4) OXT, 5) FSH,6) LH, 7) TSH
all peptide and amino acid hormones, except _____________________________, do not use carrier proteins for transport in blood thyroid hormones
lipid based hormones are _____________ based cholesterol
name the two types of lipid derived hormones 1) eicosanoids, 2) steroid hormones
prostogandins (needed for coordination of cellular activity) are part of which class and subclass of hormones lipid eicosanoids
out of all the classes and subclasses of hormones which class and subclass are the most important lipid derived hormones that are steroid based are the most important
in blood plasma, which hormones need carrier proteins steroid based hormones and thyroid hormones
corticosteroids come from which endocrine gland adrenal cortex
calcitriol (vitamin D) comes from what endocrine gland kidneys
in the lipid class (steroid/eircosanoid) hormones are more structurally similar to cholesterol steroid
hormones that (use/ do not use) carrier proteins can stay in blood for longer periods of time (Days or weeks) hormones that do use carrier proteins
about how long can free range proteins last in blood stream (amino acids and peptides) 2 minutes to roughly an hour
when do amino acid and peptide hormones become inactive (there are a total of 4 situations) 1) diffuses out, 2) binds to receptor, 3) absorbed, 4) broken-down
what is another name for carrier proteins (proteins in blood that attach themselves to hormones for transport) transport proteins
out of the three major classes of hormones, which class has hormone receptors outside the cell membrane amino acids and peptide hormones
out of the three major class or hormone has receptors inside the cell membrane lipid derived
which group of amino acid hormones have receptors inside the cell thyroid hormones
name three mechanisms of hormone action 1) alter genetic activity, 2) alter rate of protein synthesis, 3) change membrane permiability
what are hormone receptorss a protien that binds one molecule/chemical signal to another molecule/chemical strongly
how is cell or tissue/hormone sensitivity determined? by the number and type of receptors have for that particular hormone.
what is down-regulation a cell taking action to "hide" or decrease the number of receptors it has for a particular hormone
what is up-regulation an action taken by a cell to make more hormone receptors readily available
there are both extracellular hormone receptors and intracellular hormone receptors, which type uses the secondary messenger system extracellular hormone receptors
how are 2nd messenger systems activated a hormone binds to the receptors on the outer surface of the plasma membrane
what are the 2 hormone groups specifically that use a 2nd messegner system 1) catecholmines, 2) peptide hormones (except thyroid hormones)
why is the 2nd messenger system in place for some hormones and not others some hormones can cross (diffuse through) the plasma membrane, while others cannot pass the plasma membrane. the 2nd messenger sys. is for the hormones that cannot pass through the cellular membrane
in a second messenger system, what is the first messenger the extracellular hormone receptor
what is a 2nd messenger in the 2nd messenger system an intermediary molecule that appears with hormone-receptor interation (inside a cell)
name three second messengers 1) cyclic Adenosine MonoPhosphate (cAMP), 2) cyclic GMP (cGMP), 3) Calcium Ions
what is the term for a second messenger system that allows a small number of hormones bind to one cell but thousands of 2nd messengers respond amplification
what is receptor cascade when one hormone stimulates more than one response; therefore altering many aspects of a cell function at the same time
what is the name of the protein inside of a cell that acts as a link between the first and second messenger G-Protien
what can happen when a G-Protein is activated in a cell the levels of cAMP, cGMP, or Calcium Ions can change
second messenger systems (do/do not) allow specific hormones to directly affect the activities inside the sell do not
what enzyme helps to increase the number of active cGMP Guanylate Cyclase
what enzyme helps to decrease the number of active cGMP and/or cAMP in a cell Phosphodiesterase (PDE)
what enzyme helps to increase the number of active cyclic Adenosine Mono Phosphate (cAMP) in a Cell Andenylate Cyclase
what are the two actions that a cell does in response to cAMP activation open ion channels or activates enzymes
what is the result of cAMP opening ion channels or activating enzymes in a cell increase (accelerated) metabolic rates
name nine hormones that use cAMP as a second messenger 1) Epinipherin, 2) glucagon, 3) calcitonin, 4) parathyroid hormone, 5) ACTH, 6) FSH, 7) ADH, 8) LH, and 9) TSH
what two hormones stimulate a deactivation of cAMP in a second messenger system Catecholmines
name the enzyme that breaks down arachodonic Acid phospholipase C (PLC)
in a second messenger system, what molecule leads to the opening of Calcium Ion channels (protein kinase (PKC)) Diacyclglycerol (DAG)
which 2nd messenger leads to a positive feedback loop and in which cells/tissue/situation would you find this calcium ions, smooth muscle of uterus during labor and child birth
what does calcium bind to, in smooth muscle that leads to child birth calmodulin
what type of hormone would use calcium ions as a second messenger Oxytocin
(extracellular/intracellular) hormone receptors have two binding sites. One that binds to _____________ and the other binds to ____________ extracellular hormone receptors have two binding sites. One that binds to a hormone/DNA and the other binds to DNA/Hormone (respectively)
what is the biggest advantage of the steroid hormones it can alter the rate of DNA transcription
where are intracellular hormone receptors generally located the cytoplasm and nucleus of a cell
name the three types of stimuli in the body 1) humonal stimmuli, 2) hormonal stimuli, 3) neural stimuli
what does humonal stimuli monitor change in composition of bodily fluids
what does neural stimuli monitor the change in presence of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions
a response to an increase in blood glucose is (humonal, hormoneal, or neural) stimulus humonal
what brain structure pretty much controls the entire endocrine system hypothalamus
the infandibulum is part of the (anterior/posterior) pituitary and is made out of primarily ______________ tissue posterior pituitary and is primarily neural tissue from hypothalamus
the hypothalamus controls the pituitary in two ways, name them 1) neural controls, and 2) Regulatory Hormonal Controls
what kind of tissue makes up the antierior pituitary gland highly vascularized epithelial tissue
another name for adenohypophysis anterior pituitary
what are the target cells for hypothalamic hormonse anterior pituitary
what are the three ways in which the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland 1) neural release of hormones in in posterior pituitary, 2) secretion of regulatory hormones, 3) autonamic centers that exert direct control over adrenal medulla
name two hormones that are created in the hypothalamus and released in the pituitary antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin (OXT)
how do regulatory hormones from the hypothalamus work they stimulate the anterior pituitary to release the hormones housed in the anterior pituitary
in the hypothalamus what hormones respond to humoral (chemical) stimuli in the blood (i.e. changes in blood composition) all the regulatory hormones and Antiduretic hormone (ADH)
define a neuroendocrine response a hormonal and neural response to a mechanism
what hormones are examples of neuroendocrine response Oxycontin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
in what response situation does the endocrine response to a stimulus depend on pulses and the frequency of each pulse neuroendocrine response
name the three regions of the anterior pituitary 1) pars distalis, 2) pars tuberalis, and 3) pars intermedia
what is the hypophyseal portal system composed of a network of capillaries that carry blood from one capillary to another (this generally does not happen in the rest of the body)
what is the main purpose of the hypophyseal portal system provides an efficient means of communication, keeping hormone concentrations high within the anterior pituitary prior to them being diluted in the bloodstream while traveling to the rest of the body.
name the two classes of regulatory hormones resleased by the hypothalamys releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones
what is the function of releasing hormone to stimulate the synthesis of one or more hormones in Anterior Pituitary
what is the functions of inhibiting hormones to prevent the synthesis and release of one or more hormones in the anterior pituitary
for a majority of the hormones released by the anterior pituitary are tropic hormones, what does this mean tropic hormones are hormones that have target cells that are other endocrine cells (they stimulate the release of hormones by other endocrine glands)
what is endocrine gland is also called the "master gland" pituitary gland
name the four tropic hormones released by the pituitary gland Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Lutenizing Hormone (LH), Follicule Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
name the two non-tropic Hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland Growth Hormone and Prolactin
name all 7 hormones released by the Anterior pituitary gland 1) Thyroid stimulating hormone, 2) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, 3) Follicle Stimulating Hormone, 4) Lutenizing Hormone, 5) Prolactin, 6) Growth Hormone, 7) Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
what is the trigger for Thyroid Stimulating Hormone synthesis and release, what organ does it come from? Thyrotropin Releasing hormone, Hypothalamus
What is the target cell of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, what occurs when the target cell is stimulated Thryoid Gland, the release of Thyroid homones
what would happen if the Anterior Pituitary gland stopped releasing TSH? 1) Hypothalamus would release an overabundant amount of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone, 2) There would be a hyposecretion of TSH, 3) Thyroid would not synthesize or release T-3/T-4, and 4) T-4 would not inhibit the secretion of Thyrotropin Releasing Hor.
what would happen if the Anterior pituitary gland over produced TSH 1) over abundant amount of T-3/T-4 release from thyroid, 2) T-4 would severely inhibit Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone in Hypothalamus,
What stops the release of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone from the Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary (respectively) increased levels of T-4 in blood stream
what is the target cell for Corticotromin (ACTH) adrenal cortex (particularly the zona fasciculata or the cells that produce the glucocorticoids (Cortisol))
what happens once Adrenocorticotropic hormone reaches its target cells cortisol and other glucocorticoids, these stimulate the transformation of glucose from non-glucose sources
what is the trigger for Adrenocorticotropic hormone release Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone from the hypothalamus
what is the signal for the anterior pituitary to stop releasing ACTH increased glucocorticoid levels in the blood stream
What would happen if the hypothalamus does not secrete Thyrotropin Releasing hormone The Anterior pituitary will not release TSH. The thyroid will not produce or secrete thyroid hormones ,
what would happen if the anterior pituitary did not secrete enough ACTH? 1) there would be an overabundant amount of corticotropin-releasing hormone, 2) the adrenal cortex would not release enough cortisol, 3) gluconeogenesis would not occur
what would happen if the anterior pituitary secreted too much ACTH? 1) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone would not be released, 2) overabundant amount of Cortisol release, 3) hyperglycemia and possible Diabetes Mellutis
name the two gonadotropins that are released from the anterior pituitary lutenizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone
what are the gonad organs in the male and female testes (male) and ovaries (female)
what is the trigger for Follicle stimulating Hormone gonadotropin-Releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus
what is the trigger for Lutenizing hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus
in a female what are the target cells of the follicle stimulating hormone, the follicle cells in the ovaries
in a female, what happens when the follicle stimulating hormone reaches it's target cell 1) encourages follicle development, 2) secretion of estrogens (estradiol)
what is the causes the Follicle Stimulating hormone in a female to stop secreting inhibin (a peptide hormone released by the ovaries)
what are the target cells of the follicle stimulating hormone in men nurse cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
what are the effects of the follicle stimulating hormone in men promotions of sperm maturation and develpment
what is the trigger for lutenizing hormone the release of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone by the hypothalamus
what is the target organ for lutenizing hormone in females ovaries
what is the major response to lutenizing hormone in females inducing ovulation
lutenizing hormone is also a tropic hormone, what hormone(s) is(are) released in women at the target organ estrogen and progesterone are released by the female ovary
in men, what is the target cells for lutenizing hormone interstitial (Leydig) cells of the testes
what is the response of the Leydig cells when stimulated by lutenizing hormone release of androgens (specifically testosterone)
if the anterior pituitary is not functioning properly and does not release enough lutenizing hormone needed, what happens in females 1) there would be a hypersecretion of Gonadotropin Releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, 2) estrogens and progesterone are not released to stop the release of GnHR, 3) there is no ovulation,
if the anterior pituitary is not functioning properly and does not release enough lutenizing hormone needed, what happens in males 1) there would be a hypersecretion of Gonadotropin Releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, 2) androgens are not released by interstitial cells to stop release of GnRH in hypothalamus
release of FSH is not being secreted at the level that it needs to that it needs to be secreted in men, what happens 1) hypersecretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone by hypothalamus, 2) nurse cells are not stimulated to facilitate sperm development and maturation, 3) inhibin is not produced.
release of FSH is not being secreted at the level that it needs to that it needs to be secreted in women, what happens 1) hypersecretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone by hypothalamus, 2) follicles are not stimulated to prepare follicle/oocyte for , 3) inhibin is not produced.
in men and women with hypogonadism, what happens they do not sexually mature, men do not produce functional sperm, and women do not produce functional oocytes
for men, what is the target cell of prolactine interstitial endocrine cells
what are the target cells of prolactin in women mammilary glands
what is the response to prolactin in women who are nursing or pregnant stimulate milk produstion and let down
which hormone acts as a natural birth control for women who have given birth prolactin
in men, what is the funtion of prolactin helps to regulate androgen production
what hormone makes Leydig Cells more sensitive to Lutenizing hormone prolactin
under normal circumstances, Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone from the hypothalamus is generally (high/low) concentration in the blood stream generally, prolactin inhibiting hormone is high
prolactin inhibiting hormone is also a neurotransmitter, however the neurotransmitter has a different name. what is the name of the neurotransmitter dopamine
what is the trigger for prolactin release prolactin releasing hormone
for people with schizophrenia dopamine levels are usually (high/low). as a result, there is a low secretion rate of prolactin high
for people with depression (or parkinson's disease), dobutamine levels are (high/low) as a result, there is a high secretion rate of prolactin low
what is another term for somatotropin growth hormone
what is the target for growth hormone all cells with a primary focus on skeletal muscle and cartilage
what is the cellular response to growth hormone cell growth and accelerated protein synthesis
what tissues does growth hormone directly effect stratified squamous epithelial tissue on skin, liver, and adipose tissue
liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called somatomedins
what is somatomedin insulin-like growth factor
in response to growth hormone there is a(n) (increased/decreased) level of fatty acids and glucose increased
increased levels of growth hormone (can/cannot) cause Diabetes Mellitus can
what triggers the release for growth hormone growth hormone releaseing factor from the hypothalamus
what two factors assist in stopping the release of growth hormone? 1) the release of growth hormone inhibiting factor (or somatostatin) from the hypothalamus, and 2) increase in somatomedin levels in the blood
what are the target cells by the melanocyte stimulating hormone melanocytes in skin
what is the target cell's response to melanocyte stimulating hormone increased production of melanin
what inhibits melanocyte stiumulating hormone dopamine
when are the 4 major times in life when MSH is secreted 1) fetal development, 2) pregnant women, 3) very young children, 4) some disease
what is the trigger for MSH release pro-opticmelanocortin (POMC)
why can melanocyte stimulating hormone be an important hormone it can help show that there is something wrong with the anterior pituitary
name a thyroid disease that can increase the amount of melatonin release addisons disease
if there is a hypersecretion of ACTH, how can does this affect MSH levels in the blood, and why MSH needs carrier proteins to travel in blood stream, ACTH stimulates release of cortisol, which stimulates the production of carrier proteins
what is another name for the neurohypophysis posterior pituitary
which hypothalamus nuclei is responsible for the production and release of Antidiuretic Hormone Supra-optic Nuclei
which hypothalamic nuclei is responsible for the production and release of oxytocin paraventriculare nuclei
define axoplasmic transport the movement of ADH and OXT along the axons of their respective nuclei prior to release
which posterior pituitary hormone uses cAMP as a second messenger ADH and OXt
what is another term for vasopressin Antidiuretic hormone
what is the trigger for ADH release dehydration
what is the target organ for ADH kidneys
name one intracellular calcium binding protien calcimodulin
what is the main action of ADH increasing water conservation by kidneys
what is the major function of oxytocin induction of labor in pregnant women
what is the target cell of oxytocin in women myometrium of uterus (major), and myoepithelium around aveoli and mammilary glands
what are ALL (major and minor) functions of Oxytocin in women labor and delivery (major) and milk ejection (minor)
what is one stimulus of oxytocin release infant suckling
in men, what organs does oxytocin target smooth muscle in ductus (vas) deferens and prostate
what is the cause of Diabetes Insipidus inadequate amounts of ADH release
what is diabetes insipidus and how is it different from diabetes mellitus kidneys do not function properly and has excessive water loss
in regards to number of receptors, what does down-regulation ma allow the target cell to it's number of receptors for a ligand
name the hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver cortisol
the liver responds to growth hormone by releasing hormones called somatomedins
name one intracellular calcium-binding protein is calmodulin
peptide hormones are composed of _______________ amino acids
name a hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature thyroxine (T3)
the link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually G-Protein
what is the main action of antidiuretic hormone is increased water conservation by kidneys
Type II Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by a lack of response by target cells to insulin
the hypothalamus controls secretion in the adenohypophysis by secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system
which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin? A) glycosuria, B) low blood glucose, C) polyuria, D) high blood glucose, E) ketoacidosis B) low blood glucose
synergism occurs when hormones working together to produce a larger effect than predicted
membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones ? A) eicosanoids, B) catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids, C) catechloamines, D) thyroid, E) peptide hormones B) catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids
what are the target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration osteoblasts
what is the pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
what kinds of bodily functions does the thyroid gland regulate growth, development, and cellular metabolism
what is the main ion that is needed for the thyroid to function properly iodine
what is the structure that connects the two "wings" of the thyroid isthmus
what type of cells line the thyroid follicles simple cuboidal
what is the name of the fluid that is inside each thyroid follicle colloid fluid
what are the main particles that make up the colloid Iodine ions and thyroglobulin
what is another term for parafollicular cells c (clear) cells
what are C - Cells cuboidal cells that are sandwiched between the follicular cells of the thyroid gland
how is iodine in the body obtained (do we make it ourselves) iodine is obtained through diet
how are iodine ions transported through blood TSH sensitive carrier proteins
what is the name of the enzyme that helps the iodine ion lose an electron and become electrically neutral thyroid peroxidase
what is the difference between T3 and T4 the number of iodine molecules attached to the tyrosines ; T3 has three iodines attached, and T4 have four iodines attached
(T3/T4) is the thyroid hormone that acts as a negative feedback for TSH in the Anterior Pit. and the Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone in the Hypothalamus T4
how does increased TSH stimulation effect colloid increased TSH stimulation increases colloid size
how does decreased TSH stimulation effect colloid size decreased TSH stimulation decreases colloid size
what is another term for tetraiodothyronine thyroxine/T4
what is another term for T3 triiodothyronine
how does increased TSH levels affect Iodine transportation with increased TSH levels there is an increased rate of Iodine ions into the follicular cells of thyroid
how does increased TSH levels affect thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase increased levels of TSH levels in blood leads to an increased production of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase (TPO)
what acts as a 1st messenger for TSH thyroid peroxidase (TPO)
what is the function of Adenylate cyclase in the thryroid convert ATP to cAMP
what is the second messenger used by TSH cAMP (cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate)
what is thyroid-binding globulins (albumin ) a carrier protein that binds to T3 and T4 when these hormones are in the blood stream
what is the limiting factor for T3/T4 production in the thyroid lack of Iodine in diet
how does lack of iodine affect the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary hypothalamus will secrete and increased amount of thyrotropin releasing hormone and the anterior pituitary secretes an increased amount of Thyroid stimulating hormone because there is not enough Thyroxine to create a negative feedback system
how does lack of iodine affect the thyroid gland itself without enough iodine to make T4 there is no hormone that creates a negative feedback system for TSH. Therefore TSH continually stimulates the Thyroid. The increased TSH productions causes the colloid to increase in size (creating a Goiter)
what are the target cells for T3/T4 pretty much every cell in the body; at least any cell that has Thyroid hormone receptors
what is the cellular response to increased thyroid hormone increased cell metabolism
increased HR, rate of energy consumption, and nervous system stimulation can be the results of (hyper/hypo) thyroidism hyperthyroidism
once inside the cell, T3/T4 can go to one of three sites. Name the cytes cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus
what happens to T3/T4 that is stored in the cytoplasm of a cell it is stored until there is a decrease in circulating T3/T4
when T3/T4 binds to receptors in the nucleus what happens on the receptors opposing side, it attaches to the DNA and instructs the cell to create enzymes that are involved with energy transformation
what is the main enzyme that is produced when T3/T4 receptors activate the DNA Sodium-Potassium ATPase
what does Sodium - Potassium ATPase do in the cell it moves sodium out of the sell, and brings Potassium in to the cell, in doing so it uses large amounts of ATP
what would happen in the cytoplasm if there was an under production of T3/T4 there would be an under production of sodium - potassium ATPase, there would be too much sodium ions and not enough potassium in the cytoplasm
what would happen in the cytoplasm if there was an over production of T3/T4 there would be an over production of sodium - potassium ATPase, there would be not enough sodium ions and too much potassium in the cytoplasm
what is the calorigenic effect an increased cellular metabolism rate, which leads to increased oxygen consumption, increased body temperature
in children, why is calorigenic effect important essential for growth of skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems
what is the hormone that is produced by the parafollicular cells in the thryroid calcitonin
_______________ regulates calcium ions in the body by stimulating calcium ion secretion in the kidneys, and prevents calcium uptake in the GI calcitonin
at (high/low) calcium ion concentrations can lead to decrease in sodium ion permiability and (therefore) decreased membrane responsiveness high
what happens when calcium ion levels are dangerously low increased membrane permeability to sodium ions , cells can become excitable and result in convulsions or spasms
what gland and hormone is primarily responsible for maintaining blood/calcium solution at the appropriate level parathyroid and parathyroid hormone
name the cells that produce parathyroid hormone parathyroid (principal) cells
what is the function of parathyroid cells, to monitor calcium ion levels in blood stream and to release parathyroid hormone (PTH) when calcium ion levels drop too low
what hormone is triggered when there is a calcium ion concentration in the bloodstream is too low parathyroid hormone
what is the cellular response to parathyroid hormone increase calcium levels in blood by stimulating osteoclasts to release it from bone (major), increase calcium reabsorption in kidneys (minor)
what is the target cell of parathyroid hormone osteoclasts (primarily) and kidneys (minor)
what hormone stimulates the formation of calcitriol in the kidneys parathyroid hormone
what are the two parts of the suprarenal gland adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
name the three sections of the adrenal cortex (from most external to most internal) zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis
name the main function of cortisol and cortisone increasing the amount of blood glucose by using non-carbohydrate sources (gluconeogenesis)
name the class of hormones that are released from the zona glomerulosa in the adrenal cortex minerocorticoids
what is the most notable mineralocorticoid, and what is it's primary functions aldosterone, regulated electrolytes (most namely it reabsorbs sodium ions)
what class of hormones are released from the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex glucocorticoids
what class of hormones are released from the zona reticularis androgens (testosterone)
the only source of testosterone in women come from what organ (name the specific cell that produces this hormone) zona reticulata cells in the adrenal cortex
name the two most common glucocorticoids cortisol and cortisone
name the transport proteins that bind to corticosteroids in the blood stream transcortins
what stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex there are several including: low BP, high potassium ions, low sodium ions, increased angiotension II levels
what are the target cells for aldosterone any duct that works to excrete ionic compositions of fluids (pancreas, sweat glands, kidneys, and salivary glands)
what is response when cells are triggered by aldosterone the increased release of potassium and decreased release of sodium
how is water effected by aldosterone water follows salt, when salt is retained water is also retained
how is the behavior of water defer between the release of ADH and Aldosterone ADH water does not follow salt, ADH just tells kidneys not to release water. Aldosterone works primarily with the Sodium/potassium concentrations, in the presence of aldosterone sodium ions are retained and water follows the sodium ions
an increased interest in salty foods could signal an increase in what hormone (name the hormone, the class of hormones it belongs to, and where it comes from) aldosterone, mineralocorticoids, from the zona glomerulosa in the adrenal cortex
during a regular day, when are glucocorticoids at their lowes, when are they at their highest, and when do they peak lowest at night, highest in afternoon/evening, peak around mid-day
what is the hormone that is most responsible for gluconeogenesis (hormone name, the class of hormones, and where it comes from) cortisol (case can be made for cortisone), glucocorticoids, from the zona fasciculata in the adrenal cortex
what group of hormones are best known for their anti-inflammatory responses glucocorticoids
name the functions of glucocorticoids - maintain BP levels, - increase glucagon levels, - assist in growth and metabolism, **-gluconeogenesis***
explain why a prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids can lead to sickness it is an anti-inflammatory, which suppresses the immune system under stress, prolonged immune system suppression can lead to bacterial and viral infections
name two anti-insulin hormones growth hormone and cortosol
how do glucocorticoids fight inflammation? they inhibit leukocytes (WBC's)
what happens if the zona reticularis releases too much androgens in a female the excess androgens are converted to estrogen
name the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen aromatase
when is aromatase most active in women prior to puberty and after menopause
what is the importance of androgen release from the adrenal cortex in women promotes increased muscle mass, blood cell formation, and increased sex drive
name the two types of receptors in the sympathetic nervous system alpha and beta
name the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine
what triggers the adrenal medulla to release catecholamines the alpha and beta receptors of the sympathetic nervous system
what is the function of chatecholamines stimulation mobilicing glycogen reserves resulting in increased strength and enderance, and increased rate of glucose breakdown
Created by: kandriot