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BIO201 Lecture Exam

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of Anatomy? The study of structure or form.
What is the definition of Physiology? The study of function at many levels
What is the definition of Microanatomy? Cytology, histology
What are the techniques for examining Structure? Inspection: more important that you know Palpation: touch and feel Auscultation: listen; usually with stethoscope Percussion: tap with fingers listen for sound Dissection: cadaver study, some exploratory surgeries
What are the four tissue types? Epithelial Connective Nerve Muscle
What is Physiologic and Pathologic Hypertrophy? Give an example. Enlarging tissues Physiologic occurs due to normal stressor ex. enlarging of skeletal muscle due to exercise Pathologic occurs due to abnormal stressor ex. growth of heart due to heart disease
What is the definition of Physiologic and Pathologic Hyperplasia? Give an example. More tissue Physiologic occurs due to normal stressor ex. growth in mammary glands during pregnancy Pathologic occurs to due abnormal stressor ex. growth in adrenal glands due to hormones
What is a first degree burn? Epidermis only Ex. sunburn
What is a second degree burn? Epidermis and upper dermis/ partial thickness burn
What is a third degree burn? Epidermis, dermis, and tissue below/ full thickness burn
What are the area percents of burns? Each leg anterior- 9% posterior- 9% Each arm anterior- 9% posterior- 9% Trunk anterior- 18% posterior- 18% Head- 9% Perineum- 1%
What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma? Cancer caused by an uncontrolled growth of abnormal squamous cells. Bleeds easily, friable lesion
What is Basal Cell Carcinoma? Most common, rarely metastasizes, sun exposed areas
What is Malignant Melanoma? Most dangerous skin cancer, rapidly metastisizes
What are the ABC's of skin cancer? A- asymmetry B- border irregularity C- color D- diameter (6mm) E- elevation
What are squamous cells? Forms the surface of the skin, lines hollow organs of the body.
What are basal cells? Cell in the innermost layer of epidermis
What is the axial body division? The center of the body, everything excluding the limbs
What is the appendicular body division? Upper and lower extremities (arms and legs)
What is the Midsagittal Plane? Plane that divides the body into left and right halves
What is the Coronal Plane? Plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral halves. (front and back)
What is the Oblique Plane? Any other plane that is not horizontal or vertical
What does brachial refer to? The arm, relating to the arm
What is the RUQ? Right upper quadrant, contains liver
What is the RLQ Right lower quadrant, contains appendix
What is the LUQ Left upper quadrant, contains spleen
What is the LLQ Left lower quadrant, contains part of colon
What are the different shapes and layers of Epithelial Tissue? Shapes are Squamous (flat), Cuboidal (cube), and Columnar (column, rectangular). Layers are Simple (one), Stratified (more than one), and Pseudo-stratified (one, but looks like more than one)
What is the functions of the Epithelial Tissues? Squamous lines and covers Simple Squamous transports Stratified Squamous forms outer layer of skin Cuboidal secretes Simple Columnar can secrete Psu
Where is Transitional Epithelium? In the urinary tract
What are the categories of Connective Tissue? Blood Bone Cartilage Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage CT Proper Loose Adipose Reticular Dense Dense Regular Dense Irregular Dense Elastic
What is the makeup of tendons and ligaments? Fibrous CT, collagenous fibers
Where is energy stored? Adipose tissue, lipid in adipocytes
What are fibroblasts? Produce collagen
What is a Lipoma? Non cancerous, lump under skin made up of fatty cells
What is a Liposarcoma? Rare cancer in fat cells
Which cartilage is a template for bone formation? Hyaline cartilage
Which cartilage is found in epiglottis? Elastic Cartilage
Which cartilage is found in the trachea? Hyaline Cartilage
What is PTH? Parathyroid Hormones cause the body to put more calcium in the blood.
What is Calcitonin? The opposite of PTH, lowers the amount of calcium in the blood.
What is an Osteoblast? Cell that creates bone
What is an Osteocyte? Bone cells
What is an Osteoclast? Cell that breaks down bone
What is a Chondrocyte? Cell that creates cartilage
What is a Chondroblast? Forms Chondrocytes
What is Apoptosis? Programmed cell death
What are Langerhan Cells? Macrophages that reside in the epidermis, reside in the Stratum Spinosum
What are the different layers of the epithelium? Stratum Corneum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Spinosum Stratum Basal
What does Distal mean? Farther from the midline
What does Proximal mean? Closer to the midline
What is Erythemia? Redness due to blood under the skin
What is Cyanosis? Blue-ish coloration
What does Pallor mean? Pale
What is Jaundice? The allowing of a build up of bile in tissues
What is bronzing? Due to Addisons disease, stress makes it worse
What is Raynaud's Phenomenon? Part of the hands turn blue Autoimmune Disease
Which muscle has intercalated discs? Cardiac Muscle
What is the most abundant tissue? Connective Tissue
What are stretch marks from? A tear of the dermis, occur from rapid weight gain
What is Postive Feedback? The effect increases the stimulus
What is Negative Feedback? When a desired effect has been achieved, the stimulus is negated
What is Homeostasis? Ability of body to maintain a stable internal environment with a widely changing external environment
What are Integrins? Transmembrane protein
What are Peripheral Proteins? Enzymes
What is the Ion Channel? Protein molecules
What are Keratinocytes? Keratin cells, produces keratin
What are Melanocytes? Melanin cells, produces melanin
What are Merkel Cells? Found at the junction of epidermis and dermis, for touch
What is the Cutaneous Plexus? Supplies the fatty tissue of the hypodermis
What is the thickest epidermis layer? Stratum Spinosum
Make a chart of all tissues. Epithelial Simple Squamous Epithelium Stratified Squamous Epithelium Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Simple Columnar Epithelium Pseudo-Stratified Columnar Epithelium Transitional Epithelium Connective B
Created by: aleenaarif
 

 



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