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chapter 8

emergency situations and all-hazards preparation

title Description continue of description
cardiac arrest in the surgical sitting in the OR sitting the D of the CABs of cardiac arrest is is undertaken when the doctor begins to provide definitive treatment . in the OR the anesthesia perosnal are avilable to mange CP aresst sitituation an they provode IV acces and aterail pressure and blood gas monitoring as well as airway management and respiratory and cardiac support .
malignant hyperthermia is a very serious disorder MH is a life- threatening , acute pharmacogenetic disorder, developing during or after anesthesia . MH is usually triggered by an anesthetic agent , such as halothane, enflurane , isoflurane, and may be triggered by muscle relaxers cuch as cuccunlochione . MH is characterized by a rapid increase in body temperature , unexplained tachycardia , unstable blood pressure , muscle rigidity, tachypnea and cyanosis.
DIC or disseminated intravascular coagulation is a pathological process in the body that occurs when blood begins to coagulate within the body. the initial hypercoagulation is replaced by a deficiency in clotting factors , leading to hypocoaulabilty and internal hemmerage. DIC result in clotting symptoms infection of blood by bacteria or fungus, severe tissue trauma, leukemia , sever liver disease , recent blood transfusion reaction, and obstetric complications.
anaphylactic reactions is an exaggerated allergic reaction to a substance or protein. a patient suffering an anaphylaxis attack generally first shows only mild inflammatory symptoms such as itching, swelling, and in some causes difficutly breathing, hives or urticarila may be present on skin with severe itching intravenous fluids and plasma may also be utilized to restore fluid volume and vasopressor agents such as levophed are given to increase blood pressure because an analytic shock occurs so quick.
natural disasters like hurricanes , earthquakes , tropical storms floods, volcanos and tornadoes . unfortunately the most common occurring types of disasters that can affect large populations. HCPS should be ready to treat the victims for asphyxiation, fractures and hypothermia an dehydration or heat stroke.
man-made disasters are disasters refer to transportation accidents, acts of terrorism, or industrial incidents.
remember triage in these situations . which is in order from emergency to stable .
indications of emergency situations prior to surgery the surgeon and anesthesia provider should be notified immediately if any of these indicators of emergency situations aire : Difficulty breathing , chest pain, change in skin color , change in vital signs, open bleeding wounds or visible pictures not indicated on the patient's chart, inability to move limbs, misshapen / misaligned body part, disorientation or confusion and headache.
objective and the two priorities in emergency situations first priority is in an emergency situation is to check for and provide a patent airway to ensure or restore respiratory status and breathing . the second priority cardiovascular status should be maintained or restored and hemostasis should be provided to maintain circulatory status. the first two priorities , treatments is providing for chest injuries, shock wound closure/ protection , fractures , vital sign monitoring and provision of reassurance and comfort for the patient .
CPR or Cardiopulmonary resuscitation step1) position head , attending a tight seal in mouth-mouth rescue breathing . step 2 ) began chest compressions immediately , step 3 ) the ratio of chest compressions for adults , children and infants is 30 compressions: 2 breathes . step 4) the depth of compressions for adults is a consistent depth 2in, the HCP should place heel of one hand on the middle lower half of strunem and the heel of other hand on top parallel fashion press down 2 in and allow chest to recoil . step 5 ) check for neck trauma before you do this step if non is visible tilt chin lift maneuver to open airway, step 6 ) breath the breath should be delivered over 1 second and produce a visible reise in chest. step 7) wile one HCP is doing CPR another is grabbing AED , Step 8 ) put pads on as shown turn AED on and wait for assessment then yell clear and give shock if needed . if no shock needs to be delivered continue CPR or until EMS arrives.
Created by: mlester451