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What is serological technique? Involve the use of antigen & antibody reactions
What is the example of know antibody against unknown antigens/microbe? Streptex
What are the examples of known antigen against unknown antibody? 1.Widal test (test for Salmonella typhi infection) 2. ELISA for anti hepatitis B antibodies
What are the examples of serological assays? 1.Immunofluoresence 2.ELISA
What is direct immunofluoresence? 1.For antigen detection 2.use fluorescent dye labelled ab 3.Non specific reaction may occur
What is indirect immunofluoresence? 1.For antibody detection 2.require a fluorescent dye labelled second antibody 3.Increase in sensitivity 4.decrease in specificity
Why indirect immunofluoresence will decrease in specificity? fluorescent 2nd antibody may also bind to unreacted ag & ab
What is the full name of ELISA? Enzyme Linked ImmnunoSorbent Assay
What is the drawback of immunofluoresence? Both direct & indirect IF rely on experienced staff, interpretation can be subjective
Why ELISA is a heterogenous enzyme assay? Either Ag or Ab is attached on solid phase
How to measure the enzyme activity of ELISA? 1.Enzyme activity is measured by specific substrate 2.using a machine 3.Quantitative, so more objective interpretation
What is agglutination? Cross linking of microorganisms, cells or particles by antibody against surface antigen
Whats the requirement for effective agglutination? Requires large amount of antigenic determinants & antibody binding sites
Which antibody is more effective in agglutination? IgM
What are the 3 types of agglutination and its example? 1.direct, clumping Ag by Ab, eg. slide test for Salmonella 2.Indirect(passive), known Ag linked to latex particles or RBC, eg.Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test) 3.reverse passive, know Ab attached on latex particles, eg. Streptex
What is Widal test? 1. An agglutination test 2.Test Ab during tyhpoid fever 3.Ab against flagellar (H) Ag & somatic (O) Ag 4.eg. Samonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, B, C
A STD, syphillis is caused by ? 1.Treponema pallidum 2.Gram negative, spirochetes
What is the non-specific test for syphillis? VDRL(venereal disease research laboratory) test
What are the non-specific Ab detected in VRDL test? They called Reagins
Whats so special about the Treponema pallidum Ag? cardiolipin coated on cholesterol particles
How to examine the VRDL test result? Under 10x objective lens
What is the alternative for VDLR test? Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test 1.Antigen cardiolipin coated on charcoal 2.no need heat treatment 3. agglutination can be observed by naked eyes 4.Plasma is the sample
What is the high sensitivity and high specific test for syphillis? Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA ABS) test
What is Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA ABS) test? 1. Uses type specific treponema pallidum antigen 2. Detects antibody in patient's serum by indirect IF
Created by: kencho