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MLT-Aerobic GP Rod


What are the clinically important GPR? 1.Spore-forming: Bacillus, Clostridium(anaerobe) 2.Non spore-forming: Corynebacterium, Listeria
What are the sequence to differentiate GPR? 1.Gram stain morphology 2.Catalase reaction 3.Beta-hemolysis with sheep blood agar 4.Aerobic sporulation
Which GPR is a irregular rod? 1.Corynebacteria 2.Catalase + 3.Non β-haemolytic (Some can be α-haemolytic)
Which GPR are regular rods? 1.Bacillus(catalase +, beta-hemolytic, except B. anthracis) 2.Listeria monocytogenes(catalase +, beta-hemolytic) 3.Erysipelothrix(catalase -, non beta-hemolytic)
What are the clinically important Bacillus to Human? 1B. anthracis 2.B. cereus
Bacillus only form endospores in the presence of ? Oxygen
Whats makes the Bacillus so special ? Heat and chemical resistant
What are the application of Bacillus? 1.Validation of autoclave and disinfectants 2.Production of antibiotics 3.Production of vitamins
How Bacillus can be used to validate autoclave? 1.As biological indicator 2.B. stearothermophilus can survive even at 75℃
How Bacillus can be as control for ethylene oxide sterlisation? Bacillus spores are chemical resistant
What antibiotics are produced by Bacillus? 1.B.licheniformis –bacitracin 2.B. polymyxa –polymyxin B
What vitamins are produced by Bacillus? B. megaterium –B12and B2
What are the background for B. anthracis? 1.Colony on sheep blood agar: large (4-5mm), flat, and white to gray with irregular edges 2.no β-haemolysis 3.Non-motile
What are the virulent factor of B. anthracis? 1. Capsular protein-antiphagocytic 2.Exotoxins -> edema
Which three portal entry of B. anthracis infection and its mortality rate? 1.Cutaneous: mortality ~20% 2.Gastrointestinal 3.Pulmonary: mortality 100%
What are the specimen for B. anthracis? Pus or tissue samples
How to identify B. anthracis? 1.Gram positive rod 2.Easy to culture on standard blood or nutrient agar 3.Gray to white and non-haemolytic colonies 4.motility - 5.catalase + 6.Penicillin + 7.endospore +
How to treat B. anthracis? 1.Intravenous penicillin for early infection. 2.Ciprofloxacin as alternative for penicillin-allergic 3.Prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin for the late stage or during outbreak 4.Vaccination
Which species in Bacillus would cause food poisoning? B. cereus 1.due to survival of the endospores from the improper cooking process 2.after long RT storage, spore germinates and bacteria produce endotoxin
How to identify B. cereus? 1.Gram + rod 2.Gray to Green large colonies, Beta-hemolytic on Blood agar 3.motility + 4.Penicillin -
Which is the most important pathogenic species in Corynebacterium? Corynebacterium diphtheriae
What are the 4 subspecies of Corynebacterium diphtheriae? 1.C. diphtheriae gravis 2.C.diphtheriae intermedicus 3.C. diphtheriae mitis 4.C. diphtheriae belfanti
Where does the diphtheria toxic come from? 1.Bacteriophage 2.it infects C. diphtheriae and transfers toxin genes 3. C. diphtheriae will then become toxigenic strain
What would be caused by C. diphtheriae? 1.local lesion in throat 2.formation of pseudomenbrane that obstruct breathing 3.lead to death due to respiratory distress
What would be the specimen for C. diphtheriae? Swab from throat lesion
How to identify Corynebacterium? 1. Gram + rod 2.Chinese character '八' 3.Non motile 4.Non or alpha hemolytic
How to identify C. diphtheriae? 1.Gram + rod 2.Chinese character 3.Tinsdale Agar: selective and differential
What can be observed if C. diphtheriae on Tinsdale agar? 1.C.diphtheriaecan reduce potassium tellurite into a metallic telluriteand forms 2.A dark (black to brown) halo surrounding the colonies
What others can also produce dark colony on Tinsdale agar? Staphylococci Proteus can also produce black colonies but no halo
How to test if the C. diphtheriae is toxigenic? 1.Elek Assay 2.Paper strip saturated with diphtheria antitoxin in molten agar at 55℃ 3.Positive: Development of an agar precipitin line at 45ºangleto the strip within 1-2 days of incubation
How to treat C. diptheriae infection? 1.Vaccine 2.Penicillin or Erythromycin+antitoxin
What is the human pathogen of Listeria? Listeria monocytogenes
What is the basic info of Listeria? 1.Gram + rod 2.Short single rod, sometimes in chain 3.Non spore forming 4.Flagella at RT , motile at 30C
What can be the specimen for L. monocytogenes? blood, CSF, amniotic fluid, genital tract swabs
How to identify L. monocytogenes? 1.Gram + rod 2. Catalase + 3.CAMP + 4.Round translucent colony with narrow zone of β-haemolysis
What does the CAMP test do? 1.Presumptive identification of Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae), the only beta-hemolytic Streptococcus 2. GBS produce CAMP factor to enhance the beta-hemolysis effect of Staphylococcus aureus. 3.
How to treat L. monocytogenes infection? 1. Penicillin or Ampicillin 2. Vancomycin if Penicillin allergy 3. Listeria is innately resistant to cephalosporin I, II and III
Created by: kencho