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Marieb Hoehn Immun.

chapter 21 immunity

Is the innate defense system specific or non-specific? Non-specific
What is the first line of defense in the innate system? The external body membranes. ie skin and mucosae.
What is the second line of defense in the innate system? Used when first line of defense has been penetrated. The antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells to inhibit the invaders spread throughout the body.
What is the hallmark of the second line of defense? Inflammation
Is the adapative defense system specific or non-specific? Specific
What is the bodies third line of defense? Adaptive system(specific)
Which takes longer to mount a response, the innate or adaptive defense system? The Adaptive system(specific)
What is the ph level of skin secretions? Acidic ph of 3-5
What are some internal defenses? phagocytes, NK cells, Inflammation, Antimicrobial protiens, fever
What cell is used in humoral immunity? B cells
What cells are used in cellular immunity? T cells
Which two types of immunity are used in adaptive defense? Humoral and cellular immunity
What are the chief phagocytes? macrophages
From what do macrophages derive? Monocytes
What are the two types of macrophages Free macrophages such as the alveolar macrophages of the lungs, and fixed macrophages such as the Kupffer cells in the liver and microglia of the brain.
What must occur before a phagocyte to accomplish ingestion? Adherence
What is opsonization When complement proteins or or antibodies coat foreign particles. The coating provides handles to which receptors can bind.
What does the respiratory burst release? Hydrogen peroxide and bleach
What chemical do neutrophils release? defensins
What do defensins use to destroy a pathogen? They pierce the pathogens membrane.
What happens to neutrophils in the process of fighting pathogens? They are killed as well.
Which cells are unique in that they can kill cancer or virus cells before the adaptive system has activated? Natural Killer Cells, NK cells.
Are NK cells phagocytic? No, they kill cells by using the same methods as cytotoxic T cells. They also secrete potent inflammatory chemicals.
What triggers the inflammatory response? when body tissues are injured: a blow, intense heat, chemicals, or infection by viruses, fungi, bacteria.
What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation: redness, heat, swelling and pain. If in a joint then impairment of movement is considered a fifth sign.
What are some beneficial effects of inflammation? prevents spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, sets the stage for repair.
What are Toll like receptors? TLR's are are on the surface membrane and trigger immune response. They release chemicals called cytokines that promote inflammation and attract WBC's to the scene.
Which cell releases histamines? Mast cells and basophils.
What are other cells released in the inflammatory mediated response? Injured tissue cells, phagocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and blood proteins.
What other chemical mediators are released in inflammatory response? Histamine, cytokines, kinins, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes,as well as complement.
What is hyperemia? Increased blood flow. sometimes causes redness and heat in inflamed region.
What is exudate? fluids containing clotting factors and antibodies.
What does exudate cause? local swelling aka edema that presses on adjacent nerve endings causing pain. Edema is not detrimental.
What are the four steps of phagocyte mobilization? Leukocytosis, margination, diapedesis, and chemotaxis.
What is margination? inflamed endothelial cells sprout CAMs that signal this is the place. neutrophils then bind and cling to the inner walls of the capillaries and postcapillary venules.
What does complement do? lyses microorganisms, enhances phagocytosis by opsonization, and intensifies inflammatory and immune response.
How do NK cells respond? promote apoptosis. they do not require specific antigen recognition and do not exhibit a memory response.
What initiates a fever? pyrogens
Which cells follow neutrophils into an injured area? Monocytes
What happens to monocytes when they leave the blood and enter tissues? They develop large numbers of lysosomes and become macrophages. they begin to replace neutrophils on the battlefield.
Which cells predominate at the site of a long term chronic infection or inflammation? Macrophages
Can viruses generate ATP or protein synthesis? No, they invade other once healthy cells and allow them to do the work.
Some virus infected cells release what small proteins? Interferons
What do interferons accomplish? They interfere with the viral process. They help protect healthy cells that have yet to be infected. They are like the block watch.
Are interferons INF's specific? No, they protect against a variety of viruses.
What is sometimes used to treat genital warts and hepatitis C? INF-a
What is sometimes used to treat multiple sclerosis? IFN-b
To what does complement refer ? A group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive state.
What is the major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body? complement. it unleashes chemical mediators that amplify virtually all aspects of the inflammatory process.
Our own cells are equipped with proteins that respond how to complement? they inactivate it to protect themselves.
Is complement specific? No, but it enhances the effectiveness of both innate and adaptive defenses.
What are the two pathways by which complement can be activated? The classical pathway and the alternative pathway.
Define MAC a group of complement proteins are inserted into the cells membrane. MAC creates a hole in the membrane that ensure lysis of the cell.
Once MAC creates a hole in the membrane what happens that causes lysis? Na+ rushes in and water follows the sodium. This overfills and ruptures(lyses) the cell.
Does MAC use opsonization? yes, the C3B molecules coat the microoganism and create handles for macrophages and neutrophils to grab and adhere to.
What is sequestered by the liver and spleen during a fever? iron and zinc.
How does the sequestering of iron and zinc help? Bacteria require large amounts of iron and zinc to multiply. By limiting these the body fights the bacteria.
What are 3 properties of the adaptive immune response? it is specific, it is systemic, and it has memory.
Is the adaptive response responsible for most complement activation? Yes
What is a major difference between the adaptive system and the innate system? it must first meet or be primed by an initial exposure to a specific substance antigen before it can protect against that substance.
What provides humoral immunity? antibodies present in the fluids(blood, lymph, etc.) They are produced by lymphocytes but circulate freely in the fluids where they bind to bacteria, toxins, and free viruses. They mark them for destruction by complement or phagocytes.
What provides cellular immunity? The lymphocytes themselves rather than antibodies defend the body in cellular immunity. cellular immunity targets cells that are infected.
How do lymphyocytes kill cells in cellular mediated immunity? lymphocytes act directly, by killing the cells, or indirectly by releasing chemical mediators that activate other lymphyocytes or macrophages.
Define Antigen substances that can mobilize the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response. They are not normally found in healthy individuals and so the body sees them as intruders.
What are the two types of antigens? Complete or incomplete
What are two important functional properties of complete antigens? Immunogenicity, the ability to stimulate specific antibodies or lymphocytes. Also Reactivity, the ability to react with lymphocytes and antibodies released.
What foreign molecules can act as complete antigens? Almost all foreign proteins, many polysaccharides, and some lipids and nucleic acids. of these proteins are the strongest antigen.
Define a Hapten is an incomplete antigen. a small molecule that must be attached to protein carriers to have immunogenicity. If not attached it is only reactive.
Define antigenic determinates certain parts of an entire antigen that are immunogenic
Can a single antigen mobilize many lymphocyte populations? Yes, because they carry a variety of antigenic determinants on their surface.
Name some molecules that are innert ie have no immunogenicity. Some plastics, aluminum, gold etc. often used to make artifical implants because they won't cause a reaction.
Define MHC proteins among the cell surface proteins that mark a cell as "Self". millions of combos of these genes are possible so no two people, other than twins have the same MHC proteins.
Where is a Class 1 MHC found? found on virtually all body cells
Where is a class 2 MHC found? only on certain cells that act in the immune response.
What binds to MHC 1? Cd 8 cells
What binds to MHC 2? CD 4 cells aka the Helper T cells
What are the three crucial cell types of the adaptive immune system? B lymphocytes or B cells, T lymphocytes, or T cells, and antigen presenting cells aka APC's.
What do B cells oversee? Humoral immunity
What do T cells oversee? the cell-mediated arm of the adaptive immunity system.
What do APC's respond to? unlike lymphocytes APC's do not respond to specific antigens but instead play an essential auxillary role.
What is immunocompetence? each lymphocyte must learn to recognize its one specific antigen by binding to it.
What is self-tolerance? each lymphocyte must be relatively unresponsive to self-antigens so that it does not attack the body's own cells.
Where do T cells undergo their education? In the thymus
Where do B cells undergo their education? In the bone marrow.
What are primary lymphoid organs? The organs where the lymphocytes become immunocompetent. The Thymus and Bone marrow.
What are all other lympoid organs called? Secondary lymphoid organs
What are B and T cells called if they haven't been exposed to antigens? Naive. These naive cells are sent to the secondary organs to where encounters with antigens can occur. After they bind with antigens they begin to differentiate into effector and memory B or T cells
What happens to cells that show negative selection? They are eliminated by apoptosis.
What does negative selection ensure? immunologic self tolerance which makes sure the cells don't attack the body's own cells.
What percent of T cells survive their education process? Only about 2% survive.
Define anergy. in the periphery self reactive B cells are inactivated.
What is somatic recombination? The shuffling of the gene deck of cards.
What is the main job of APC's To engulf antigens and then present fragments of them like signal flags on their own surface so that T cells can recognize them.
What are the major cell types that act as APC's? The dendritic cells. Present in epidermis and connective tissue. They are called langerhans cells, macrophages, and b lymphocytes.
What do clone cells become? B plasma cells or memory cells
What is the lag time for the primary response in adaptive immunity? 3 to 6 days
When does a secondary response take place? If there is a second exposure. This is much faster than primary response. The system is on alert and has memory of the past exposure. Response takes place within hours. levels are higher and plasma cells can live longer to fight the invaders.
what is active humoral immunity? B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them.
What are the two ways active immunity is aquired? naturally aquired when you get a bacterial or viral infection, and artificially when you receive vaccines.
What is an attenuated vaccine? The pathogen is living but extremely weakened.
How does passive humoral immunity differ from active immunity? the antibody source is different and the degree of protection it provides is different.
Give an example of passive immunity? From mother to fetus through placenta, or from mother to infant through breast milk.
How long does passive immunity last? For several months
What are immunoglobulins (Igs) antibodies. This constitutes the gamma globulin part of blood proteins.
How many groups of Ig classes can all antibodies be placed into? Five groups covers them all.
What bonds link all antibody polypeptide chains? disulfide bonds that is sulfur to sulfur.
how many polypeptide chains link together in an antibody? Four. Two heavy two light.
What are the five Ig classes? MADGE. Igm, Iga, Igd, Igg, and Ige
Which of the Ig classes is the largest? IgM is the largest with a five Y shaped units. looks like a snowflake
Which Ig class can be a dimer or monomer? IgA
Which three Ig classes are only monomers? IgD, IgG, and IgE
Which Ig is the first antibody released to the blood by plasma cells and readily fixes complement? IgM
Which Ig is found in mucus and other secretions that bathe body surfaces? IgA, it plays a major role in preventing pathogens from entering the body
Which Ig is always bound to a B cell where is acts as a receptor? IgD
Which Ig is the most abundant antibody in plasma and the only one to cross the placental barrier? IgG
Which Ig is used to pass on passive immunity from mother to fetus? IgG
Which Ig classes can fix complement? IgM and IgG are the only two that can fix complement.
Which Ig class is the troublmaker behind allergies and is found only in small quantities in blood? IgE
During secondary response which Ig class is used most? IgG
Can antibodies themselves destroy antigens? No, but they can inactivate and tag them for destruction.
What are the defensive mechanisms used by antibodies? Neutralization, agglutination, precipitation, and complement fixation and activation.
What are monoclonal antibodies? descendants of a single cell they are pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant.
How are monoclonal antibodies made? By fusing tumor cells and B lymphocytes.
What are hybridomas? The result of creating monoclonal antibodies. the fused tumor cell and b lymphocyte. like tumor cells hybridomas proliferate endlessly in culture and like B cells only produce a single type of antibody
What do CD4 cells become? Helper T cells
What do CD8 Cells become? Cytotoxic T cells
What is the major role of Cytotoxic T cells To destroy any cells in the bodythat harbor anything foreign
When is the only time antibodies invade solid tissue? When a lesion is present
Can T cells "see" free antigens or antigens in their natural state? No. They can't see them. They only notice them when processed fragments are presented by APC's and others
What is an endogenous antigen fragments generated within previously normal cells as a result of normal cell metabolism, or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with MHC class I molecule
Class 1 MHC proteins are displayed by what cells? virtually all body cells except red blood cells. Basically all nucleated cells.
What cells are notified when MHC class 1 displays foreign fragments? Cytotoxic T cells
Where are class 2 MHC's found? typically only on the surfaces of cells that present antigens to CD4 cells. This would be dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells.
Class 2 MHC's come from what antigens? Exogenous antigens. These come from antigens outside the cell that have been engulfed and broken down by phagolysosomes.
What is anergy? a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance. Occurs when T cells bind without getting the co stimulatory signal.
What are cytokines? messengers who mediate cellular immunity. They influence cell development, differentiation, and responses.
Interferons and interleukins are what? cytokines
Where do Helper T cells work? In both cellular and humoral adaptive immunity processes and systems
Which cell is the director that leads the adaptive immune response? The Helper T cell, without it there is no adaptive response.
Which T cell is the only one that can directly attack and kill other cells? Cytotoxic T cells.
How do cytotoxic T cells attack and destroy cells? In two ways. By perforins and granzymes, or by binding to a Fas receptor.
How to Fas receptors kill cells? They initiate cell apoptosis.
How does perforin kill a cell? It pokes a hole in it and then sodium rushes in pulling in water with it. This causes the cell to lyse
What T cell dampens the immunity response? regulatory T cells
What cell is important in preventing autoimmune diseases? Regulatory T cells
What is an autograft? tissue grafts transplanted from one body site to another in the same person
What is an Isograft? a graft donated to a patient by a genetically identical person. for example identical twins.
What is an Allograft? a graft transplanted from individuals that belong to the same species but are not genetically identical.
What is an Xenograft? grafts taken from anotehr animal species. Such as a baboon heart being placed within a human.
Which graft type is most commonly used? Allograft
What is the rate of transplant rejection after ten years, even under the best circumstances? 50% rejection rate.
What percentage of americans have an autoimmune disease? 5% of american adults, with women being two thirds of that percent.
What large duct that receives lymph drained from the entire lower body, the left upper extremity, and the left side of the head and thorax. Thoracic duct
What is the largest lymphoid organ; provides for lymphocyte proliferation, immune surveillance and response, and blood-cleansing functions Spleen
What is lymph? Protein-containing fluid transported by lymphatic vessels
What are lymph nodes? Small lymphoid organ that filters lymph; contains macrophages and lymphocytes
Name of the lymphoid organs located in the small intestine; also called aggregated lymphoid nodules Peyer's patches
What is the ring of lymphoid tissue that appear as swellings in the mucosa of the oral cavity tonsils
What is a bubo? A swollen or infected lymph node
Typically large clusters of lymph nodes occur in the following location except where the lower exremities do not have clusters of nodes.
What kind of cells would predominate in chronic infections? Macrophages
Are monoclonal antibodies used in diagnosis of Juvenile diabetes? No
Where do viruses live in the body? intracellular
What is the special shape that a particular lymphocyte recognizes? The antigenic determinant
What is a 3-d molecule on the surface of a pathogen? Antigen
What is a protein molecule produced by the immune system that binds antigens? Antibodies
Which form of immunity is directed at extracellular pathogens? Humoral Immunity
Which form of immunity can by transferred by body fluids? Humoral Immunity
In which form of immunity are T cells key players? Cellular Immunity
Which form of immunity involves anitbodies? Humoral Immunity
Which form of immunity ivolves B cells? Humoral Immunity
What follows the influx of neutrophils into affected tissues? monocytes
What cells carry out immune survveillence and look for the lack of normal proteins on our own cells? Natural Killer Cells aka NK cells
What cell phagocytizes pathogens and usually gives its life in the process? Neutrophils
Which cells can secrete destructive enzymes onto the surface of pathogens? Neutrophils, Macrophages
Which cells are first to leave the blood stream and move into tissues that are affected? Neutrophils
Which cells transform into macrophages upon entering the tissues? Monocytes
Which cells release chemicals to call neutrophils to damaged or infected tissues? Macrophages
Are neutrophils usually found in healthy tissues? No
What is one means of marking cells for phagocytosis? Complement coats the cell providing signals and handholds.
Can complement kill some bacteria on its own? Yes
To what family do interferons belong? Cytokines
Is complement considered a plasma protein? Yes
Can interferons active immune cells? Yes
Do interferons modulate inflammation? Yes
What is a major job of interferons? To interfere with viral replication
Can complement activate inflammation? yes
Which complement fragment cleaves C5? C3B
Name the inflammatory mediators Histamine, Kinins, cytkines, prostaglandins
Surface markers on activated endothelial cells to which neutrophils and monocytes bind? CAM's aka cell adhesion molecules
The process of neutrophils leaving the bloodstream Diapedesis
The process by which neutrophils follow the trail of inflammatory mediators up the concentration gradient? Chemotaxis
Are T cell receptors Y shaped? No, they are not. T cell receptors are not antibodies which would be Y shaped
Are all antigen receptors on a given T cell identical? Yes
Are antigen receptors on a B cell different than each other? No, they too are identical
How many different types of lymphocyte antigen receptors are our bodies estimated to make? 100 million
How does the body make so many varied types of antigen receptors? By somatic recombination. Like shuffling a deck of cards.
Where do lymphocytes mature? In the bone marrow and in the thymus
How many lymphocytes reach maturity? only 1 in 20 lives to reach maturity.
What is the first test of a lymphocyte called? Positive selection
What is postitive selection? Is MHC recognized
What is the second test of a lymphocytes called? Negative selection
What is negative selection? Does the cell recognize self antigens
What happens if the T cell recognizes MHC? It is allowed to continue to the next test which is negative selection
What happens if the T cell recognizes self antigens in the negative selection process? It is killed by apoptosis. this helps prevent autoimmune diseases where the cells attack their own.
What is a naive lymphocyte? A mature lymphocyte that has not met its antigen
What determines whether the antibody stays bound to the B cell? The stem
What part of the antibody is a polypeptide building block? Heavy chain, and light chain
What part of the antibody interacts with the antigen? The arm
What part of the antibody determines whether it can activate complement? The stem
What connects the chains of an antibody together? Disulfide bonds, that is sulfur to sulfur
What determines whether the antibody can act as an opsonin? The stem
What class of antibody has an unclear role but is known to act as a B cell antigen receptor? IgD
First antibodies secreted in response to a new antigen? IgM
Antibody involved with allergies IgE
Antibody with the largest circulating percentage IgG
Where is IgA found abundantly? In secretions
What antibody class provides natural passive immunity to a fetus? IgG
Which antibodie is secreted as pentomers with ten binding sites? IgM
Which antibody protects us from being infected a second time by the same pathogen? IgG
What releases interleukin 1? Macrophages
What interleukin promotes, acts as a pyrogen, and stimulates helper T cells to release interleukin 2? Interleukin 1
Which interleukin stimulates clonal expansion? Interleukin 2
Which cytokine warns uninfected cells that a virus is present? interferons which are actually released by the infected cells
What cell releases interleukin 2? The helper T cells
Which T cell binds to class 1 MHC? CD8
Does CD8 or CD4 have the possibility to become a helper T cell when activated? CD4
Which T cell binds to class 2 MHC proteins? CD4
Would CD8 or CD4 have the chance to become a regulator cell? CD4
When activated does CD8 or CD4 have the possibility of becoming a cytotoxic T cell? CD8
Does class 1 or 2 MHC protein present only exogenous antigens? Class 2
Antigens presented on this class of MHC can trigger CD4 cells to become helper T cells? Class 2
These MHC proteins are found only on antigen presenting cells? class 2
This class of MHC is found on all nucleated cells? Class 1
Created by: simplymemories



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