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What is protozoa? An informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic
What are the 4 groups of protozoa? 1.Flagellates 2.Amoeba 3.Sporozoa 4.Ciliates
Whats medically important in Flagellates? 1.Trichomonas vaginalis - genitourinary infection 2.Giardia lamblia - gut infection 3.Trypanosomes - blood infection 4.Leishmania - tissue infection
Whats medically important in Amoeba? 1.Entamoeba histolytica
Whats medically important in Sporazoa? 1.Plasmodium 2.Toxoplasma
Whats medically important in Ciliates? 1.Balantidium
What would be caused by Giardia lamblia? 1.Diarrhoea 2.Acquired by contaminated water or food
Whats the specimen for Giardia lambia? Examine fresh stool for trophozoites, or cysts
Whats the shape and no. of nuclei of Giardia lambia ? Pear shaped trophozoite and Cyst has 4 nuclei
What would be caused by Entamoba histolytica? Amoeba dysentery(痢)
How to differentiate Trophozoites and Cysts? Trophozoites: inhibit in hosts organ, non infective Cysts: for transfection
Whats the treatment for Entamoba histolytica? metronidazole
Whats the specimen for Entamoeba histolytica? 1. Fresh stool:wet mounts and permanently stained (eg.trichrome) 2.Concentrates from fresh stool: wet mounts, with or without iodine stain, and Trichrome, but not useful for demonstrating trophozoites
What are hosts of Sporozoa-Toxoplasma gondii? 1. Definitive host: Cat 2:Intermediate hosts: Human + other domestic animals
Whats the ways to identify Sporozoa-Toxoplasma gondii? 1. Serology: Immunofluorescence technique to detect specific Ag 2.Molecular diagnosis to detect DNA
What are the hosts of Sporozoa-Plasmodium? 1.Definitive host: Anopheles mosquitos 2.Infected host: Human
What is the route of infection for Sporozoa-Plasmodium? 1.Sporogonic cycle in Anophele mosquitos 2.Exo-erythrocytic cycle in Human 3.Erythrocytic cycle in Human 4.Mosquitos gametes produced in blood 5.Mosquitos takes the gametes during blood meal
What would be caused by Sporazoa-Plasmodium? Malaria
What are the examples of Sporazoa-Plasmodium? 1.P. vivax 2.P. falciparum 3.P. malariae 4.P. ovale
What is the way to identify malaria? Examine blood film, look for the morphological characteristics of the plasmodia
What are the anti-malaria drug? 1.Chloroquine 2.Artemisinin 3,Doxycycline
What is Helmiths? A worm like parasite
What are the type of helminths? 1.Nematodes 2.Cestodes 3.Trematodes
What are the examples for Nematodes? 1.Enterobius(Pin worm) 2.Necator(Hook worm) 3.Ascaris 4.Trichuris
What would be caused by pin worm? itching around anus
How to identify pin worm? 1. identifying eggs from stool or anal mucosa using Cellotape strip 2.Examine under microscope 3.Clear oval eggs, flattened on one side (25 um x 50um)
What is the example for Ascaris? 1.Ascaris lumbricoides 2.Man is the only host 3.Diagnosis: eggs or adult worms in stool
What is the example for Trichuris? 1.Trichuris trichura: Whipworm 2.Host: man, monkeys 3.Eggs are oval and brown, thick shelled structures with translucent knobs at the ends 50um x 25um in size 4.produce 3000 to 10000 eggs daily
What is host for Hookworm? 1.Man
What would be caused by hookworm? 1.Iron deficiency anemia 2.symptoms; gastrointestinal & nutritional symptoms
Which stage/form of hookworm can penetrate skin and cause transmission? Filariaform larvae
What are the examples for Cestodes? 1.Taenia saginata 2.Taenia solium
What is the Cestode morphology? 1. Long, 0.02m to 10m (scolex/head, neck, segmented body) 2.Scolex has 4 muscular disks for attachment to the intestinal mucosa 3.neck has proglottids 4.Each proglottid is a hermaphroditic reproductive unit
What is beef tapeworm ? 1.Taenia saginata 2.4-6 m in length
What is the host for beef tapeworm? Cattle is the intermediate host
What would beef tapeworm cause? epigastric pain, diarrhoea , nausea, irritability
How to identify beef tapeworm? eggs or proglottids in stool
What is pork tapeworm? Taenia solium
How to differentiate T. saginata from T. solium? T. saginata has no hooks in scolex and its uterus has 15-20 branches. T. solium has hooks in the scolex and its uterus has 7-13 branches.
Created by: kencho



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