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CHATER 2

MIDTERM Unit 1

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following clients would be an example of cellular atrophy? A middle-aged female experiencing menopause due to loss of estrogen stimulation
A client has experienced significant decreases in mobility and stamina during a 3-week hospital stay for the treatment of a femoral head fracture. Which of the following phenomena most likely accounts for the client's decrease in muscle function? Disuse atrophy of muscle cells during a prolonged period of immobility
The client is found to have liver disease, resulting in the removal of a lobe of his liver. Adaptation to the reduced size of the liver leads to which phenomenon in the remaining liver cells? Compensatory hyperplasia
A client presents for a scheduled Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. The clinician who will interpret the smear will examine cell samples for evidence of: Changes in cell shape, size, and organization
When performing an assessment on a school-aged child, the nurse notes that the mucous membranes along the gum margins have a noticeable blue-colored line. At this point, the nurse should ask the parents about possible: EXPOSURE TO LEAD
An elderly client asks her health care provider if the reason she has developed aortic stenosis is because she drank so much milk as a child growing up on a farm. Which of the following responses is most accurate? “Atherosclerosis is a long process that eventually results in calcification of heart valves.”
Which of the following pathophysiologic processes is most likely to result in metastatic calcification? HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
Despite the low levels of radiation used in contemporary radiologic imaging, a radiology technician is aware of the need to minimize her exposure to ionizing radiation. What is the primary rationale for the technician's precautions? Radiation: Interferes with DNA synthesis and mitosis
A mother rushes her child to the emergency department after she found an empty Tylenol (acetaminophen) bottle beside her child. The nurse is trying to explain why it is so important to give the child Ipecac to induce vomiting in order to prevent: LIVER FAILURE
The parents of a 4-year-old girl have sought care because their daughter has admitted to chewing and swallowing imported toy figurines that have been determined to be made of lead. Which of the following blood tests should the care team prioritize? Red blood cell levels and morphology
A pregnant client is attending a nutrition class for first-time moms. During the class, the instructor stressed that they should avoid consumption of which food that may cause brain damage from methyl mercury exposure? TUNA
A client has been diagnosed with a gram-negative bacillus in his blood cultures. The health care providers know these bacteria may produce clinical manifestations such as high temperature, high RR and low BP. These manifestations are primarily caused by: The outer layer of the bacterial membrane acting as an endotoxin
Which of the following diseases would be considered to be caused by a lack of a specific vitamin or mineral? SCURVY
Free radicals damage cells by: Destroying phospholipids in the cell membrane
client has been admitted to a hospital for the treatment of a recent hemorrhagic stroke that has left him with numerous motor and sensory deficits. These deficits are most likely the result of which of the following mechanisms of cell injury? Hypoxia and ATP depletion
An elderly client has experienced some hypoxia as a result of chronic respiratory problems. Knowing that oxygen -deprived cells result in an accumulation of lactic acid in the cells, physiologically, the client may experience: Altered cell membrane permeability
Injured cells become very swollen as a result of: ALTERED CELL VOLUME
Ischemia and other toxic injuries increase the accumulation of intracellular calcium as a result of: Release of stored calcium from the mitochondria
Release of stored calcium from the mitochondria CELL DAMAGE RESULTING FROM INCREASED AMOUNT OF FAT IN CYTOPLASM
A client with diabetes has impaired sensation, circulation, and oxygenation of his feet. He steps on a piece of glass, the wound does not heal, and the tissue area becomes necrotic. The necrotic cell death is characterized by: CELLULAR BREAKAGE
dXwith gram-negative pneumonia of the lower lobe. Knowing that gram-negative bacteria have a lipopolysaccharide endotoxin on their outer cell membrane, the health care provider should be assessing the client for which pathophysiological end result? APOPTOSIS
A person eating peanuts starts choking and collapses. His airway obstruction is partially cleared, but he remains hypoxic The health care providers will be assessing this client for which of the following physiological events? Select all that apply. CEREBRAL INFRACTION &&& COAGULATION NECROSIS
PT w/ DMand severe peripheral vascular disease has developed signs of dry gangrene on the great toe of one foot. The client asks, “How this can happen?” Which of the following pathophysiologic processes should the nurse explain to this client? IMPAIRED ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY TO TOE
A group of elderly residents were commenting on how many cell functions decline with age. One commented Friends who lived under large electromagnetic towers experience aging at an accelerated rate in comparison with residents who DIDT ERROR THEORY ASSOCIATED WITH DNA DAMAGE
Which of the following facts underlies the concept of replicative senescence? Telomeres become progressively shorter in successive generations of a cell.
Created by: krystalcarey