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Cell to Cell

Communication: Chemical and Electrical Signaling

4 components required for communication sender, signal, medium and receiver
Name 2 types of homeostatic signals Chemical and Electrical
What are chemical signals? Proteins, lipids or gasses secreted by cells that prompt an effect in neighboring or distant cells
What are electrical signals? change in overall balance of negative and positive ions inside and outside of cell that transmit signals along cell membrane
True or False: Messages can be carried by a series of electrical AND chemical signals TRUE
Define Hormone Chemical messenger produced by endocrine gland Travels through bloodstream to act on distant cells
Define Neurohormone Chemical released be a nerve cell into blood Meant to act on distant cells
Define Neurotransmitter Chemical released by nerve cell bridges the synaptic cleft to turn electrical signals into chemical ones
Define Paracrine Factor Chemical signal released by body cells Travels by diffusion through extracellular fluid Act on nearby cells
Describe ligand-gated channel receptor Gates that allow ions to cross cell membrane
Describe enzyme-linked receptor Has 2 parts When extracellular part is bound, it activates an enzyme that activates another enzyme and keeps going until one activated enzyme induces a functional change in the cell
Describe G-Protein coupled receptor membrane receptors that utilize second messengers to spread intracellularly an extracellular signal
Define second messenger small molecule that transmits a cell surface signal to cytoplasm or nucleus
What is the role of a G-Protein regulates the production of a specific second messenger
What is a ligand? Chemical signals
What is a receptor? A receiver that binds to a ligand
what receptor protein are enzymes a part of? Enzyme linked receptors
True or False: ligands can cause different responses in various cells True- because different cells have different receptors
What is the role of a dendrite? convey electrical signals from another cell TOWARD the neuron cell body
What is the role of the cell body of a neuron? Most of the neuron mass Contains nucleus
What role do axons in a neuron? Convey electrical signals AWAY from cell body and to other cells
What is the function of a collateral? Provide regulation of the cells firing pattern.
Role of meylin sheaths? help accelerate the transmission of electrical signals
Define endogenous ligand naturally occurring ligand for a particular receptor (endo=within; genous=body)
Define exogenous ligand originates outside of the body
True or False: A Neuron can have only one dendrite and many axons False: A neuron can have many dendrites but only one axon
What is an electrical gradient? different number of anions and cations of either side of the cell membrane is found in every cell and is the basis of electrical communication
What is a membrane potential? fluid inside a cell membrane compared to the fluid just outside
Characteristics of Action Potentials - has depolarizing and re-polarizing phase - always the same magnitude - signal strength is determined by the frequency - travels long distances - occurs when man voltage gated sodium channels are opened
Characteristics of Graded Potentials - can be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing - can be combined to create a larger signal
Where is sodium more concentrated? Outside of the cell
Where is potassium more concentrated? Inside of the cell
3 important ions channels Leak channels, ligand gated channels and voltage gated channels
Describe a leak channel always open, allowing ions to "leak out" , most cells have more potassium leak channels than sodium channels
Describe a ligand gated channel open in response to a chemical signal, help with turning a chemical signal into an electrical signal
Describe a voltage gated channel open in response to a change in membrane potentials, responsible for long distance electrical signals
What 2 things are needed for ion movement by facilitated diffusion? A) a gradient B) an open ion channel
What 2 things determine a resting membrane potential? A) potassium is concentrated inside cell B) potassium channels are always open
Name the four phases of action potential -resting state - graded potential - depolarization - re-polarization
Describe the resting state of an action potential -inside of cell is negatively charged -no change in membrane potential - Na+ ions outside of cell - K+ ions inside of cell - Voltage gated channels are closed
Describe the graded potential phase of action potential - Membrane potential is slightly depolarized - some Na+ ions enter the cell by opening of voltage-gated channels - K+ ions are still leaving via the leak channel
Describe the depolarization phase of an action potential -Membrane potential continues to depolarize -many Na+ ions enter due to opening of more voltage-gated channels -K+ ions continue to leave via leak channel, voltage-gate channels are closed until polarization reaches peak
Describe the re-polarization of an action potential -Cell membrane begins to re-polarize - Na+ voltage-gated channels are closed, blocking their entry - K+ ions leave via leak channels and newly opened K+ voltage gate channels
Define action potential Large change in membrane potential that can travel long distances
Sodium ions entering the cell cause what reaction? Depolarization
Potassium ions leaving the cell cause what reaction? repolarization
What part of the neuron do action potentials happen? nodes
Define anatagonist chemical that blocks or slows down the effect of a ligand
In which body systems are electrical signals most important? Nervous and muscular system
What is the resting membrane potential for muscle and nerve cells -70mV
A strong graded potential has a greater... magnitude
a stronger action potential has a greater... frequency
The process by which myelnated neurons move electrical signals quickly is called... saltatory conduction
what channels are opened during the repolarization phase of an action potential voltage gated potassium channels
G-protein coupled receptors stimulate the production of.... phospholipids
Graded potentials travel over ______ distances and action potentials travel over _______ distances graded: short action: long
Created by: efoote



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