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AMT 1216

Reciprocating Engines

QuestionAnswer
Reciprocating engines are classified by their: Cylinder arrangement
What is the most common way to cool an opposed type engine? Air cooled
What type engine can be mounted vertically or horizontally? Opposed-type
What is known as the foundation of the engine? Crankcase
What is commonly referred to as the backbone of the engine? Crankshaft
What are three shapes of the top face of a piston? Flat, convex, and concave
The piston face shape prevents what? Interference with the valves
What connects the piston to the connecting rod? Connecting rod
What prevents gases from leaking out of the combustion chamber? Piston rings
Detonation, misfiring, and excessive oil consumption can result from what? Too much oil film of the cylinder walls
Strong and lightweight, inexpensive to manufacture, inspect and maintain are factors of what? Design factors for cylinders
What two parts make up the cylinder construction? Head and barrel
What material is used to forge or die cast cylinder heads? Aluminum alloy
The first type of inspection of an engine should be what? Visual inspection
What is the stronger and most satisfactory shaped cylinder head? Semispherical
How are chrome cylinders identified? Visually by orange on the flange barrel
What does TBO stand for? Time Before (or Between) Overhaul
What is peening? A series of blunt depressions
What are the 3 inspection categories? Visual, structural NDT, and dimensional
What tool is used to inspect cylinder barrels for wear? Cylinder bore gauge
If a cylinder is found to be warped beyond limits, what must be done? Cylinder must be rejected
Who determines the actual overhaul period for a specific engine? The manufacturer
What is determined during the receiving inspection? The general condition and inventory of the engine's components
What is the first step after disassembling? Visual inspection
What do movable counterweights reduce? Torsional vibrations
During which two engine strokes does valve overlap occur? Exhaust and intake
What is the actual power delivered to the propeller of an engine known as? Brake horsepower
During normal operation, how much clearance would hydraulic valve lifters have? Zero
Crankshaft rotation is measured by what tool? Timing disk
What would happen if the intake valve opens too early on a 4 stroke engine? Backfiring into the induction system
What process hardens cylinders to a depth of several thousandths of an inch? Nitriding
Just before what stroke of the engine's 4 stroke cycle does the intake valve close? Compression
If you subtract friction horsepower from indicated horsepower, what is the result? Brake horsepower
What occurs shortly before the piston reaches the top of the compression stroke? Ignition of the fuel and air mixture
How could you detect exhaust valve blow-by? A hissing sound from the exhaust stack during a compression test
How do you determine the total piston displacement of an engine without measuring anything? By reading the engine designation number (O-360 = 360 cubic inches of displacement)
What would happen if a reciprocating engine is operated at high power settings before it is properly warmed up? Bearings would not be properly oiled
What could result from grinding the valves in a reciprocating engine? Pre-ignition and burned valves
What would be the cause of the oil pressure gauge fluctuating over a wide range from zero to normal operating pressure? Low oil supply
What occurs at the end of the exhaust stroke and the beginning of the intake stroke? Valve overlap
What would a lean mixture at low RPM settings cause? Backfiring through the induction system
What is the purpose of the camshaft lobes? Open valves at specific time
43. Why does the smoothness of operation of an engine increase with a greater number of cylinders? The power impulses are spaced closer together
How would the valve opening duration be effected if there is excessive valve clearance? Both intake and exhaust would decrease
At what position should the piston be when removing a cylinder? Top Dead Center
Why is the firing order for an opposed engine important? balance and eliminate vibrations
If the volume of a cylinder at BDC is 70 cubic inches and 10 cubic inches at TDC, what is the compression ratio? 7:1
On an engine with hydraulic lifters, how would the valve clearance be changed? Push rod replacement
What type of piston pin allows movement between the pin, the piston and the small end of the connecting rod? Full-floating
What are the 5 events of a 4-stroke cycle engine (in order)? Intake, compression, ignition, power, exhaust
What enables the engine RPM to be increased with an accompanying increase in power and allow the propeller to remain at a lower, more efficient, RPM? Propeller reduction gears
53. When will small induction system air leaks have the most noticeable effect on engine operation? At low RPM
When does valve overlap occur? Exhaust and intake
What is valve overlap? When both valves are off their seats (open)
What would likely happen if too low of octane fuel were used? Detonation
The intake valve just closed and the exhaust valve is closed, what stroke is the engine on? Compression
How is liquid lock prevented in radial engines? Turn the propeller by hand 3-4 revolutions if the engine has been shut down for more than 30 minutes
When would an engine require pre-oiling prior to starting the engine? Engine installation
Why are ball bearings used instead of roller bearings in high-powered horizontally opposed engines? There is less rolling friction
What could a plugged crankcase breather cause? Excessive pressure buildup in the case
Where will the greatest amount of wear occur on the cylinder walls? Near the top of the cylinder
Intake vales will have larger heads than? Exhaust valves
63. Master rod bearings are generally what type? Plain
64. What does valve overlap promote? Better scavenging and cooling characteristics
What is the purpose of having 2 or more valve springs? Eliminate valve spring surge
What causes excessive valve clearance of a cylinder on a reciprocating aircraft engine? Reduced valve overlap period
A condition that can occur in radial engines but is unlikely to occur in horizontally opposed engines is: Hydraulic lock
During what stroke does the intake valve close? Compression
During a compression check, the propeller moves in the direction of normal rotation as the pressure is applied. What does this indicate? The piston was positioned past top dead center
The breaking loose of small pieces of metal from coated surfaces, usually caused by defective plating or excessive loads, is called what? Flaking
The actual power delivered to the propeller of an aircraft engine is called what? Brake horsepower
What is the best indication of worn valve guides? High oil consumption
What could result from high manifold pressure, high intake air temperature, and overheated engine ? Detonation
What would decrease valve overlap? Excessive valve clearance
What inspection must be completed during a 100-hour inspection? Compression check
What is the formula for finding total piston displacement? 3.14 x radius squared x height of cylinder x number of cylinders
What is an advantage of using metallic – sodium filled exhaust valves in aircraft reciprocating engines? Reduced valve operating temperatures
Created by: Ms.Fietzek