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CM- Urinalysis


Liquid Excrement consisting of water, salts, and urea Urine
Location of urine production; storage Kidney; Urinary Bladder
Detects and measures several substances in urine Urinalysis
Checking of the appearance and color of the urine gross examination
Urinalysis should be performed within ______ minutes of collecting the sample. 15
Optimal temperature for refrigeration of Urine 2-8 degrees
Pathologic Causes of clear urine Drinking more than the daily recommended amount of water
Pathologic causes of Cloudy Urine Phosphaturia Pyuria Chyluria Liduria hyperoxaluria
Food or Drug cause of Cloudy urine Diet high in purine rich foods Hyperuricosuria
Pathologic cause of red or pink urine Hematuria, hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, porphyria
Food or drug cause of red or pink urine Fruits with naturally deep pink or magenta pigments Beets (anthocyanin)
Pathologic cause of blue or green urine Pseudomonal UTI, biliverdin
Food or drug cause of blue or green urine Amitriptyline (Elavil), indigo carmine, IV cimetidine (Tagamet), IV promethazine (Phenergan), methylene blue, triamterene (Dyrenium). Food coloring.
What does brown to dark brown urine or orange urine indicate? Dehydration
Pathologic cause of brown to dark brown urine Porphyria Indicates liver disease
Food or drug cause of brown to dark brown urine Side effect of metronidazole, chloroquine, antimalarial agents Large amounts of Rhubarb, aloe, or fava beans
Pathologic cause of orange urine Bile pigments
Food or drug cause of orange urine phenothiazines, phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
Pathologic cause of yellow to amber urine Concentrated urine
Food or drug cause of yellow to amber urine Carrots cascara
Involves placing papers that contain small pads of chemicals into the urine sample Urine dipstick tests
Component of dipstick test that indicates the amount of acid in urine Acidity/ pH
Abnormal pH levels indicate _______ UTI
Dipstick test that shows the amount of particles present in urine per unit volume Specific Gravity Concentration
Higher than normal urine concentration indicates what Dehydration or not drinking enough fluids
Large amounts of protein might indicate problems in the A) liver B) kidney C) both D) neither B) kidney
T/F there is normally a low amount of glucose in urine True
Ketones in urine can be a sign of what disease? Diabetes
Product of RBC breakdown bilirubin
Bilirubin in urine can indicate what liver damage or liver disease
Nitrites or leukocyte esterase present in urine can indicate what UTI
Blood in urine Hematuria
Alternative to urine dipstick tests tablet test
Main component of urine water
Common symptom of diabetes sweet smelling urine
cause of sweet urine odor high blood sugar diabetes
Occurs when bacteria from the intestines enter the bladder Bladder fistula
Cause of strong urine odor liver disease
Cause of mousey smell urine phenylketonuria
Incurable genetic disease that makes you unable to break down phenylalanine. Phenylketonuria
Cause of maple syrup odor urine MSUD
Rare and incurable genetic disease that makes you unable to breakdown Leu, Ile, Val. MSUD
Lack of treatment for MSUD can lead to what Brain damage and death
Organ responsible for pH homeostasis Kidneys
COmponent of bile that when present in urine indicates liver damage Bilirubin
When present in high amounts, this substance might indicate viral hepatitis, or conditions associated with hemolytic anemia Urobilinogen
When urobilinogen is absent, it indicates Hepatic or biliary obstruction
Protein test pad provides a rough estimate of _________ in urine albumin concentration
Urine protein elevation proteinuria
High amounts of glucose in urine Glucosuria
follow up test after occurrence of glucosuria Fasting Blood Glucose
Intermediates of fat metabolism ketones
in a person with diabetes, ketones are indications of insufficient _________ insulin
Condition where excess glucose and ketones are excreted into urine in order to flush them out of the body Diabetic ketoacidosis
Presence of hemoglobin in urine Hemoglobinuria
Myoglobin found in urine may indicate muscle damage or injury
Enzyme most common in WBCs Leukocyte esterase
Increase in WBCs in urine indicates inflammation in the urinary tract
Most common cause of positive leukocyte esterase test Leukocyturia (Bacterial UTI)
Microscope used in urinalysis Bright field
Normal amount of RBCs per HPF in urine 0-5
Healthy amount of hyaline casts in urine 0-5 per LPF
Different types of cellular casts WBC cast, RBC cast
Normal urine crystals Amorhous urates, Crystalline uric acid, calcium oxalates, amorphous phosphates
Abnormal urine crystals CaCO3, cystine, tyrosine, leucine
A method of specimen collection for obtaining non contaminated specimens. It is easy to perform and it provides a sample that can be used for bacteriologic examination and routine urinalysis. clean catch
This method may be used if the patient is having difficulty voiding. It can also be used in a female patient to avoid vaginal contamination, especially during menstruation Catheterization
To collect this specimen the patient voids before going to bed, and immediately on rising for sleep collects a urine specimen. a. First morning specimen
The specimen can be collected at any time, usually during daytime hours, and without prior patient preparation. Random urine specimen
Preferred specimen for urinalysis First morning specimen
Following collection, specimens should be delivered to the laboratory promptly and tested within how many hours? 2 hours
This type of urine examination makes use of reagent test strips? Chemical examination
Normal range of urine volume for adults 600 to 2000 mL
Polyuria is observed in these diseases Diabetes, Chronic Renal Disease
Normally, yellow color of urine is produced by Urochrome
Urine that turns black upon standing may contain what Homogentisic acid, melanocytes, and melanin
. Freshly voided normal urine is usually clear; however, if it is alkaline, a white turbidity may be present due to Amorphous phosphates
A yellow-brown specimen that produces a yellow foam when shaken can be suspected of containing: Bilirubin
What pigment causes red coloration of urine when eating beets? anthocyanins
A person with polyuria will have what coloration of urine? colorless
Terms Used to describe clarity of ones urine clear cloudy turbid
Urine clarity that indicates the presence of mucus hazy
What enzyme causes one’s urine to smell like ammonia Urease
What organic compound causes urine to smell fruity? Ketones
What is another way to call urine clarity? turbidity
1. An increased specific gravity may be attributed to the following conditions except: a. Dehydration b. Diabetes insipidus c. Diarrhea d. Glucosuria b. Diabetes insipidus
Analyte in urinalysis that uses a double-indicator system pH
Presence of this analyte in urinalysis may be indicative of biliary obstruction Bilirubin
Commonly used as first indicator for renal diseases protein test
Ascorbic acid may interfere the reading of the following analytes in urine Glucose, bilirubin, nitrite
Presence of this analyte could be indicative of diabetes mellitus glucose
At what speed and for how long should urine be centrifuged 1500 rpm for 5 minutes
Urine sediment reported as number per LPF squamous epithelial cells
T/F RBCs crenate in hypotonic urine False
T/F In alkaline urine, RBCs lyse True
Largest cell present in urine sediment squamous epithelial cells
Parasites in urine are usually contaminants from __________ the feces or vagina
most valuable initial aid for identification of crystals in urine is pH test strip
Contributes to the formation of urinary crystals solute concentration, pH, and temperature
Primary component of urinary mucus is Tamm-Horsfall protein
Finding yeast cells in urine is commonly associated with Diabetes mellitus
Urinary cast usually mistaken for mucus hyaline cast
urinary parasite that is actually an intestinal parasite Enterobius Vermicularis
Created by: 351950318848679



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