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HW/ ch 18

Anatomy and Physiology = Bio 2020; CH 18

TermDefinition
Albumin A simple protein that makes up approximately 58% of the plasma proteins. Many act as transport molecules.
Globulin A simple protein that makes up approximately 38% of the plasma proteins. Many act as part of the immune system.
Fibrin A protein that forms blood clots.
Serum Plasma without the clotting factors.
Plasma The liquid portion of blood connective tissue.
Test your knowledge about normal results found during a routine complete blood count test: 1. Red blood count (RBC) Approximately 5 million cells per microliter (μL) of blood
2. Hemoglobin Approximately 16 grams (g)/100 mL of blood
3. Hematocrit Approximately 46% of the total blood volume
4. White blood count (WBC) Approximately 7000 cells per microliter of blood
5. Platelet 250,000–400,000 per microliter of blood
Blood contains numerous _______ red blood cells in a featureless matrix, called _____. biconcave, plasma
The numerous red cells are also called ___________. These cells are unique because they lack nuclei. erythrocytes
There are smaller numbers of larger white cells with large, multilobed nuclei called _________, or white blood cells. leukocytes
Blood is located within the ________ system where it functions in the transport of nutrients, gases, wastes, and other biologically relevant molecules. cardiovascular
Formed Element White blood cells; Neutrophils; Eosinophils; Basophils
Plasma Elecetrolytes; Water; Proteins; Wastes
______ blood cells are the most common cells found in blood. Red
There are about five ________ red blood cells in each microliter of blood. million
These cells are produced by the bone marrow and have a lifespan of 3 to 4 ______. months
When they die, they are destroyed by _______ in the liver and spleen. macrophages
This process releases _____ to be stored in the liver and bile pigments to be excreted. iron
Granulocytes Neutrophil; Basophil; Eosinophil
Agranulocyte Monocyte; T-lymphocyte; B-lymphocyte; Macrophage; Plasma cell
Albumin Protein that maintains osmotic pressure
Globulin Transports lipid Alpha and beta
Gamma globulin A type of antibody for defense
Fibrinogen Helps with blood clotting
Plasma gases Used and produced during cellular respiration
Plasma nutrients Vitamins, lipids, sugar, amino acids transported to cells for use in metabolic processes
Nonprotein nitrogenous substances Waste produced in metabolism and amino acids
The structure of hemoglobin consists of ____________ chains. four
Two of the chains are ____________ and two are beta proteins. alpha
Each of the protein chains are conjugated to a nonprotein ____________ group. heme
This group contains a(n) ____________ ion in the center. iron
There are four of these groups that will bind ____________ for delivery to body tissues. oxygen
Place a single word into each sentence to make it correct, then place each sentence into a logical paragraph order.
1. Hypoxia is inadequate oxygen ____________ and can be detected by the kidneys and liver. transport
2. When detected ____________ is produced and secreted. erythropoietin
3. The hormone will stimulate the red bone marrow to ____________ RBCs. produce
4. This will result in an increase of ____________ transport throughout the body. oxygen
5. Thus the correction of hypoxemia is controlled by a ____________ feedback loop. negative
There are ____________ hemostatic mechanisms. three
First, ____________ spasm constricts the broken blood vessel, reducing hemorrhage. vascular
In platelet plug formation, a large mass of platelets ____________ and undergo degranulation. aggregate
____________ finishes the process by clotting the blood and protecting the body from excess blood loss. Coagulation
Transportation Distribution of absorbed nutrients throughout the body; Mechanism of hormone distribution; Movement of carbon dioxide from respiring tissues to the lungs
Protection Platelets mechanically and chemically work to plug holes in blood vessels due to trauma
Regulation Vasoconstriction and vasodilation due to temperature changes
Transportation Blood carries oxygen to the tissues of the body; Movement of urea to the kidneys; Movement of carbon dioxide from respiring tissue to the lungs
Protection Formed elements help destroy pathogens; Globulins sequester and contribute to the elimination of infectious agents
Regulation Bicarbonate buffers acids and bases
Erythrocyte Transportation of respiratory gases
Lymphocyte Differentiate into cells that produce antibodies
Neutrophil Increase in number during bacterial infections
Basophil Vasodilatory and anticoagulatory function
Eosinophil Increase in number during parasitic infections
Monocyte Involved with immune clearance
Erythrocyte Transport respiratory gases
Lymphocyte Includes B- and T-cell subpopulations; Destroy cancerous and virally infected cells
Neutrophil
Basophil Produce histamine and heparine; Initiate the inflammatory response
Eosinophil Increase in number during parasitic infections
Monocyte Differentiate into tissue macrophages
Coagulation Also known as clotting; Includes intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms; Includes a vast enzymatic cascade of proteins produced by the liver
Platelet Plug Formation Involves the disruption of prostacyclin; Involves endothelial collagen exposure
Vascular Spasm The first stage in hemostasis
Viscosity The resistance of a fluid to flow; Results from the cohesion of a fluid's particles; The thickness or stickiness of a fluid; When elevated the blood flows sluggishly
Osmolarity Governs the rate of reabsorption between the bloodstream and tissue fluid; Fluid transfer depends on a balance between capillary filtration and reabsorption
First, match the common name with the function and then match the common name with the scientific name.
About 95% of the volume of the formed elements; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red blood cells (RBCs); Erythrocytes
Most of the remaining 5% of the volume of the formed elements; are involved in immunity. White blood cells (WBCs); Leukocytes
Tiny cell fragments; making a negligible contribution to plasma volume; are involved in blood clotting. Platelets; Thrombocytes
Basophils Release histamine, which promotes inflammation.
Lymphocytes The cytoplasm is a thin ring around the nucleus.
Eosinophils Contain cytoplasmic granules that stain bright red with eosin.
Neutrophils The most common type of white blood cells.
Neutrophils Two- to four-lobed nuclei.
Monocytes Enlarge and become macrophages which engulf foreign substances.
Basophils Contain large cytoplasmic granules that stain dark blue or purple with basic dyes.
Anticoagulants Prevents clot formation
Antithrombin Prevents clot formation
Heparin Prevents clot formation
Fibrinogen Required for clot formation
Thrombin Required for clot formation
Plasmin Breakdown clots
Plasminogen Breakdown clots
Streptokinase Breakdown clots
The percentage of the volume of ____________ in the blood is called the hematocrit. all formed elements
This medical dictionary definition of the true hematocrit differs slightly from the clinical definition, which equates the hematocrit to the percentage of ____________ . only erythrocytes
Hematocrit values vary somewhat and are dependent upon the age and sex of the individual. Adult males tend to have a hematocrit ranging between ____________ , whereas adult females’ hematocrits range from ____________ . 42% and 56%; 38% to 46%
Males have a ____________ hematocrit because ____________ stimulates the kidney to produce the hormone ____________ , which promotes erythrocyte production. higher; testosterone; erythropoietin
Hemopoiesis occurs in ____________ of certain bones. red bone marrow
The process of hemopoiesis starts with hemopoietic stem cells called ____________ . hemocytoblasts
They produce two different lines for blood cell development: The ____________ forms (1) erythrocytes, (2) all leukocytes except lymphocytes, and (3) megakaryocytes. myeloid line
The ____________ forms only lymphocytes. The maturation and division of hemopoietic stem cells is influenced by ____________ . These molecules are all growth factors. lymphoid line; colony-stimulating factors
Blood is also considered a ____________ because it contains dissolved organic and inorganic molecules and ions. These substances include electrolytes, nutrients, gases, and waste products. solution
Polar substances like ____________ and charged substances like ____________ dissolve readily in the blood, and nonpolar molecules like ____________ do not readily dissolve in blood and require a ____________ . glucose; salts; cholesterol; transporter protein
The production of platelets is called ____________ . thrombopoiesis
From the myeloid stem cell, a committed cell called a ____________ is produced. megakaryoblast
It matures under the influence of the hormone ____________ to form a ____________ . These cells have a large size and a dense, multilobed nucleus. thrombopoietin; megakaryocyte
Each of these large cells produce long extensions from themselves called ____________ . proplatelets
While still attached, these extensions pass through the blood vessel wall in the red bone marrow. The force from the blood flow “slices” these extensions into ____________ . platelets
Platelets are sometimes called ____________ . thrombocytes
Platelets are continually produced in the ____________ by ____________ . red bone marrow; megakarycytes
Normally, the concentration of platelets in an adult ranges from ____________ , although the count may rise further during times of stress. 150,000 to 400,000
Platelets can circulate in the blood for 8 to 10 days, unless they are needed earlier for blood clotting. An abnormally small number of platelets in circulating blood is termed ____________ . thrombocytopenia
When a blood vessel is injured, the first phase in hemostasis to occur is ____________ . This limits the amount of blood that can leak from this damaged vessel. vascular spasm
This continues during the next phase, as both ____________ and the ____________ of the blood vessel wall release an array of chemicals to further stimulate this process. platelets; endothelial cells
The first phase usually lasts ____________ . from a few to many minutes
The more extensive the vessel and tissue damage, the greater the degree of ____________ . vasoconstriction
When a blood vessel is damaged, the ____________ fibers within the connective tissue beneath the endothelial cells in the vessel wall become exposed. collagen
Platelets adhere to these fibers with the assistance of a plasma protein called ____________ . von Willebrand factor
As the platelets start to stick to the vessel wall, their morphology changes dramatically. They develop ____________ that further adhere them to the blood vessel wall. long processes
As more and more platelets aggregate to the site, a(n) ____________ develops to close off the injury. platelet plug
This is a ____________ measure to block the flow of blood to an area where a vessel wall is damaged. temporary
Platelets undergo this morphologic change and become activated. Their cytoplasm ____________ releasing chemicals to assist with hemostasis. degranulates
Albumins Most abundant; Transport hormones and fatty acids
Globulins Transport iron and lipids
Fibrinogen Becomes long, insoluble strands when activated
Regulatory Proteins Enzymes
Albumins Smallest; Maintain blood pressure and volume
Globulins Antibodies
Fibrinogen Involved in blood clotting
Regulatory Proteins Hormones
Calcium Muscle contraction; Second messenger
Chloride Component of gastric acid
Glucose Fuel molecule for cellular respiration
Cholesterol Plasma membrane component
Neutrophils 50-70%; Elevated in acute stress
Lymphocytes 20-40%; Elevated in viral infections
Eosinophils 1-4%; Elevated in allergic reactions
Monocytes 2-8%
Basophils <1%
Neutrophils Elevated in tissue necrosis; Decreased with radiation therapy
Lymphocytes Elevated in multiple myeloma; Decreased with HIV and sepsis
Eosinophils Elevated in parasitic infections
Monocytes Decreased in prolonged steroid therapy
Basophils Elevated in myeloproliferative disorders; Decreased in acute allergic reactions
Factor XII catalyzes the formation of a plasma enzyme called kallikrein, that in turn converts an inactive protein into _________, a fibrin-dissolving enzyme that breaks up the clot. plasmin
The cell fragments that are a component of blood are platelets
Plasma is composed of about ___________ % water. 92
The red pigmented protein in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide is called hemoglobin
The line of blood cell development that results in the formation of erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and all leukocytes except for lymphocytes is the ____________ line. myeloid
Choose the correct statement regarding the function of platelets. They secrete procoagulants, or clotting factors, which promote blood clotting.
The most abundant formed elements of the blood is/are erythrocytes
Under the microscope, a leukocyte has a bilobed nucleus and pink granules in the cytoplasm. This is probably a(n) eosinophil
In a patient, the differential count shows neutrophil levels are very high. This may indicate a(n) bacterial infection
The first stage of hemostasis is ___________, where the damaged blood vessel constricts suddenly. vascular spasm
When blood loss is severe, the __________ nervous system helps maintain blood pressure and divert blood to where it is needed most. sympathetic
Anemia is more likely with increasing age because the amount of red bone marrow decreases
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the globin chains are broken down by macrophages into amino acids.
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the iron is transported by transferrin to the liver; is transported by transferrin to the spleen; is transported by transferrin to the red bone marrow; *All correct*
The sequence in the breakdown of the non-iron portion of the heme is heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces, and urine.
Free bilirubin is transported by the blood to the liver. True
Iron is transported in the blood by transferrin. True
Created by: svalde1907