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HW/ ch 17

Anatomy and Physiology = Bio 2020; CH 17

TermDefinition
Which of the following hormones primarily affects the reproductive organs? Follicle-stimulating hormone
Tropic hormones stimulate certain endocrine glands to secrete hormones.
Endocrine system characteristics Communicates by means of hormones; Reacts more slowly to stimuli; May continue responding long after stimulus stops; Adapts relatively slowly
Nervous System characteristics Communicates by means of electrical impulses; Adapts relatively quickly to continual stimulation
Endocrine System Releases hormones into the bloodstream for general distribution; Sometimes has very general effects
Nervous System Releases neurotransmitters at synapses; Usually has relatively local, specific effects; Reacts quickly to stimuli; Stops quickly when stimulus stops
Endocrine glands secrete ___________ into the bloodstream, where they travel to specific sites called ___________. hormones; target tissues
A hormone is a ______ and the target cell is __________. molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for specific hormones
Compared to the nervous system, the endocrine system may have a longer lasting effect.
Hormones are chemical messengers that are transported by the bloodstream and stimulate physiological responses in cells of another tissue or organ. True
In general, the endocrine system has faster results than the nervous system. False
The nervous system releases hormones at synapses and the endocrine system releases neurotransmitters into the bloodstream. False
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes. False
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes. True
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than Type 1 diabetes. True
Type 1 diabetes results from increased insulin production. False
Type 2 diabetes results from the inability of tissues to respond to insulin. True
Type 1 diabetes most often develops in young people. True
Type 2 diabetes usually develops in people under the age of 20. False
The pancreas is mostly composed of groups of cells called pancreatic acini
Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) would cause the pancreas to _________ insulin secretion, and hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels) would cause the pancreas to _________ insulin secretion. increase; decrease
Secretion of insulin causes a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose.
Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions? Pancreas
The pancreas has pancreatic islets composed of primarily alpha and beta cells. Alpha cells secrete glucagon.
One of the primary effects of glucagon in raising blood glucose is glycogenolysis. True
TRH and TSH function together to decrease the production of T3 and T4. False
TRH stimulates the secretion of TSH from the anterior pituitary. True
TSH stimulates the secretion of T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland. True
Increased blood levels of T3 and T4 inhibit TRH and TSH secretion. True
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates T3 and T4 synthesis and secretion. True
T3 and T4 are secreted by thyroid follicles. False
T3 and T4 are secreted by the parafollicular cells. True
T3 and T4 are stored in the thyroid follicles as part of thyroglobulin. True
The endocrine gland that is devoted entirely to endocrine activities and has a distinctive butterfly shape is the thyroid gland
Hypersecretion of growth hormone can lead to a condition called _________, while hyposecretion can lead to a disorder called ___________. gigantism; pituitary dwarfism
The thyroid gland is located ____________ to the larynx and is composed of two lobes connected by a narrow band of tissue called the ___________. inferior; isthmus
The _______ secretes triiodothyronine. thyroid gland
Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions by causing the kidneys to conserve sodium and excrete potassium.
The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
An inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones results in ___________, which is characterized by weight gain and lethargy, while an excess of thyroid hormone secretion results in ____________, which is characterized by weight loss and rapid pulse. hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism
Homeostatic mechanisms controlling growth hormone involve negative feedback by GH and what other hormone? GHIH
Pituitary TRH; GHRH; CRH; GnRH
Mammary Gland PRL
Testis/Ovaries LH; FSH
Liver, Fat, Muscle, Bone GH; IGF
Thyroid TSH
Adrenal Cortex ACTH
Produced by the Hypothalamus Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Corticotropin-releasing hormone; Growth hormone-releasing hormone
Produced by the Anterior Pituitary Follicle-stimulating hormone; Thyroid-stimulating hormone(thyrotropin); Growth hormone
Hypothalamic Hormones Thyrotropin-releasing hormone; Prolactin-inhibiting hormone; Somatostatin
Anterior Pituitary Hormones Luteinizing hormone; Adrenocorticotropic hormone; Prolactin
Hypothalamus PIH; Somatostatin
Posterior Pituitary ADH
Anterior Pituitary TSH; ACTH; PRL
Hypothalamus TRH; CRH; GnRH
Posterior Pituitary OT
Anterior Pituitary GH; FSH; LH
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released by the posterior pituitary.
Target organs regulate the pituitary through feedback loops. Most often, this takes the form of negative feedback inhibition.
Hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes are synthesized in the hypothalamus.
Target cells for releasing hormones are in the anterior pituitary gland.
ADH and oxytocin are secreted by neurosecretory cells.
The thalamus controls secretion of pituitary hormones. False
Up regulation In response to a chronic lack of hormones, the target cell increases the concentration of; Greater response to the same magnitude of hormone release; Increased number of testosterone receptors in skeletal muscle following resistance training
Down regulation In response to a chronic abundance of hormone, the target cell reduces the concentration of; Decreased sensitivity; Decreased response to an increase in hormone; Decreased hormone receptors resulting from chronically high insulin levels
Testosterone is an example of which type of hormone? Steroid hormone
The parathyroid glands are located on the ____________ surface of the thyroid gland. Posterior
Hormones display ________________ effects when one hormone enhances the target organ's response to a second hormone that is secreted later. permissive.Permissive effects occur when one hormone enhances the target organ's response to a second hormone that is secreted later.
_________ hormones bind to nuclear receptors, usually found in the nucleus; _________ hormones bind to membrane-bound receptors. Lipid-soluble; water-soluble
Chemical messengers that influence the activity of the same cell that releases them are ___________ chemical messengers, while chemical messengers that influence the activity of another cell are ___________ chemical messengers. autocrine, paracrine
An up-regulated cell has an increase in the number of receptors available for binding
Down-regulation of a target cell can occur in response to prolonged increase in the level of a hormone
A hormone with an effect that lasts for days would have a long half-life
The hormone that the pineal gland secretes is melatonin
What is the name of the endocrine mode of reflex stimulation that releases hormone(s) due to direct stimulation from changing levels of nutrients or ions in the blood? Humoral stimulation
Polypeptide hormones, such as FSH and TSH, and biogenic amine hormones, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, are all considered _____________ hormones. Protein
Local hormones are a large group of signaling molecules of which the primary type are called eicosanoids
___________ hormones are not attached to a carrier protein and are able to exit the blood and bind and bind to cellular receptors. Unbound (free)
Hormone __________ is the process that deals with enzymatic degradation of hormones and removal of the hormone from the blood by excretion or uptake into the target cells elimination
After eating a meal, blood sugar levels increase
Insulin, released after a meal is eaten by a person who does not have diabetes, will cause blood sugar levels to return to about normal
In Type I diabetes, blood sugar levels remain high after a meal because no insulin is released
In Type II diabetes, blood sugar levels remain high after a meal because muscle and liver cells do not receive a signal
The treatment for Type I diabetes always includes insulin
Insulin, released after a meal is eaten by a person who does not have diabetes, will cause blood sugar levels to return to about normal
Created by: svalde1907