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KIN 3600

lec 27

The Cardiovascular system works together with the pulmonary system
Functions of the cardiovascular system -Transport O2 to tissues -Removal of CO2 and metabolic by-products from tissues -Transports heat by convection - Regulation of body temperature -Transportation of hormones -Transportation of nutrients such as glucose and free fatty acids
What is the Cardiovascular system is composed of of large and small blood vessels and a pump - heart
Structure of the heart -Chambers of the heart -Right atrium and left atrium (Right and Left Atria) -Right and left ventricles
Atria receive blood from body tissues , where does it go next? pump it into ventricles; which in turn pump blood back to the body tissues
The valves of the Heart - Right Atrioventricular (A-V) or Tricuspid Valve - Left Atrioventricular (A-V) or Mitrial Valve - Pulmonic Semilunar Valve - Aortic semilunar valve
What do valves provide? one-way Circulation through Cardiovascular system (prevent backflow)
Systemic arteries -Aorta -Large arteries -Smaller arteries -Resistance arteries -Arterioles
Aorta contain a lot of elastic connective tissue
Large arteries also contain large amount of elastic connective tissue
Resistance arteries contain more vascular smooth muscle
Arterioles contain thick muscular walls and little elastic tissue
Systemic veins -Venules -Large veins -Superior Vena Cava -Inferior Vena Cava
Pulmonary blood vessels -Pulmonary trunk Artery -Right and Left pulmonary arteries -Pulmonary arterioles -Pulmonary capillaries -Pulmonary venules -Pulmonary veins
Arteries carry blood away from the heart
Veins carry blood towards the heart
Pulmonary and systemic circulations the heart is divided into two parts: Right Heart (Right Atrium and Right Ventricle) and Left Heart (Left Atrium and Left Ventricle)
Pulmonary circulation Starts R ventricle & terminates in L atrium
Systemic circulation Starts L ventricle & terminates in R atrium
Large arteries -thin walls composed of mostly connective tissue -thin muscular layer -high elasticity but cannot constrict much
Arterioles -thick walls that contain very thick muscular layer -thin connective tissue layer
Contraction of muscular layer results in Vasoconstriction
while relaxation of the muscular layer results in Vasodilation -decreasing the resistance to blood flow to various organs and tissues and thus increasing the Blood Flow.
Redistribution of blood during rest -15 to 20% of blood is distributed to the skeletal muscles -remaining 80 to 85% is distributed to the visceral organs,heart and brain
Redistribution of blood during exercise -dilation of arterioles in working skeletal muscles -constriction of arterioles in inactive organs & skeletal muscles -redistribution of blood from visceral organs to working skeletal muscles
higher intensity of exercise the larger redistribution of blood to working skeletal muscles
Maximal exercise up to 90% total systemic blood flow may be delivered to skeletal muscles.
Regardless of exercise intensity, what happens to the heart and brain blood flow? is never compromise
However, the absolute blood flow to both heart and brain increases with increase in the intensity of exercise
Muscle pump type of heart pump with no suction - one way valve
when does muscle pump function? during dynamic and static exercises
Because heart has no suction, how does it get blood? Skeletal muscles - motor Veins with one-way value – pump
How does the muscle stop blood from going back down -Muscle contracts and increases the pressure - it squeezed arteries & veins flat
What is Post-exercise blood pooling? During prolonged, vigorous exercise, the blood vessels in your legs expand/dilated, meaning that more blood moves through them and blood to the heart is low
What does Post-exercise blood pooling result in? syncope - fainting
Abdomino–thoracic, or Respiratory pump during inspiration, pressure within thorax decreases while the abdominal pressure increases. This pressure difference helps to force the blood back to the heart. -one way valve
Is Abdomino–thoracic, or Respiratory pump active during rest or exercise? active during both
Heart Rate (HR) Number of times heart beats per minute
Stroke Volume (SV) amount of blood pumped by heart per beat
HR Rest ≈ 72 beats per minute (b·min-1)
SV Rest ≈ 70 ml per beat (ml·beat-1)
Cardiac output Q = HR x SV
Heart pumps 72 b·min-1 × 70 ml·beat-1 5040 ml·min-1 or 5.04 L·min-1
During physical activity, cardiac output increases in proportion to the power output -Both HR and SV increase
untrained individuals -SV reaches its maximum at ≈ 40% of Vo2 max -Further ^ increases in cardiac output are due to the increases in HR.
Endurance-trained individuals SV may not plateau – increase progressively until max.
What does Endurance training cause? increase in Qmax and Vo2max with no change or slight decrease in HRmax
Created by: rmart11



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