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KIN 3600

lec 26

QuestionAnswer
Altitude effect on Partial Pressure of gases -Concentration of gasses remains the same -Partial pressure of the gases decreases due to the decrease in the Barometric Pressure (PB) -Respiratory gases remain the same in Mount Everest
^ total pressure ^ partial pressure
v O2 v PO2
how is CO2 transport in blood? - Dissolved in plasma water - 10 % - Carbaminohemoglobin (Hb + CO2) - 20 % - Bicarbonate ions in plasma - 70 %
Carbonic Anhydrase -^ rate 5000 folds -Dissolves in H2O -Chlorine moves in -Inactivation involves severe acidosis
Control of respiration -Control of respiration -Geared to maintain homeostasis of arterial pH, PCO2, and PO2
Where is the Respiratory control center located in the Medulla and Ponds area of the brain stem
DRNG Dorsal Respiratory Neuronal Group -Inspiratory Center
VRNG Ventral Respiratory Neuronal Group -Expiratory Center
What does Apneustic and Pneumotaxic Centers regulate depth and frequency of breathing
The regulatory mechanisms (2) Humoral (blood- born) regulation Neural regulation
Central chemosensitive Sensitive to pH of CSF (^ acidity)
Peripheral chemoreceptors -Carotid bodies -Aortic bodies -Metaboreceptors in muscles
Carotid bodies sensitive to pH & temperature of the arterial blood, blood pressure, & indirectly, to PCO2
Aortic bodies Same as Carotid bodies: sensitive to pH & temperature of the arterial blood, blood pressure, & indirectly, to PCO2
Metaboreceptors in muscles sensitive to muscle interstitial fluid pH and K+ concentration
Peripheral chemoreceptors sensitive sensitive to Po2 only if arterial PO2 drops well below the normal levels, below 60 – 75 mmHg
Neural regulation -Peripheral -Central direct
Peripheral -Muscle spindles -G.T.O. -Joint receptor -Ligament receptors -Lung stretch receptors -Right atrial stretch receptors
Central direct control - Stimulation of the respiratory center locate in medulla oblongata and pons area of the brain along with the stimulation of skeletal muscles – co-stimulation
Regulation of ventilation during rest chemical control
Regulation of ventilation during exercise neural control at the beginning, chemical control during steady state -Direct central drive from the motor cortex – both the skeletal muscles and the respiratory centers are co-stimulated
Exercise Induced Asthma Enhanced sensitivity of bronchiolar smooth muscle to temperature
What Exercise Induced Asthma -Temp v = bronchiolar constriction (narrowing) -Cooling of the airways due to the enhanced ventilation -Bronchoconstriction -Increased airway resistance 0Difficulty of breathing
Exercise induced asthma Recommendations: -Do not exercise in cold and dry conditions -Do not exercise during smoggy and dusty conditions -Take normal doses of bronchodilator drugs before, during and/or after the exercise
Valsalva Maneuver -Pushing when constipated -Weight lifters -Force output
Created by: rmart11