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KIN 3600

Lec 24

Respiratory Zone Function Gas exchange
Respiratory Composed of: -Respiratory bronchioles -Alveolar ducts -Alveolar sack -Alveoli
Respiratory Membrane -Two thick membrane – Alveolar & pulmonary Capillary walls
Respiratory Membrane thickness 02-0.5mm
Function of respiratory muscles Pressure difference between air in the lungs & atmosphere
Ventilation (V̇E)
Ventilation (V̇E) Movement in & out of the lungs
Tidal Volume (VT)
Tidal Volume (VT) Amount of air inhaled or exhaled per breath
Ventilatory frequency (V̇f)
Ventilatory frequency (V̇f) How many times your breath per/min
Pressure in lungs v decrease Pressure of air in the atmosphere
Pressure in Lungs ^ air mores out of atmosphere
Taller persons ^ higher ventilation
@ rest No inhale/exhale
Inspiration -Air in -Pressure v decrease below atmospheric pressure
Expiration -Air out -Pressure ^ increase above atmospheric pressure
Calculation of ventilation V̇E = VT • V̇f
Inspiration muscles - Diaphragm - External intercostal muscle - Auxiliary inspiration muscles
Is Inspiration an active or passive process Active process@ rest --> needs energy
Expiration Muscles - Internal. Intercostal muscle - Rectus abdominis muscle - Internal oblique muscle
Is Expiration an active or passive process @ rest expiration is Passive process because elastic recoil @ lungs & rib cage
Dead space ventilation (V̇D)
Dead space ventilation (V̇D) The amount of air ventilating conducting zone of the lungs per-min (Volume Dead Zone)
Alveolar Ventilation (V̇A)
Alveolar Ventilation (V̇A) The amount of air ventilating the respiratory Zone of the lungs per-min
Total Ventilation V̇D + V̇E
Calculation of Dead space & Alveolar ventilation V̇E = Vf • VD
Calculation of Alveolar ventilation @ rest V̇A = Vf rest • (VT rest – VD rest)
Calculation of Dead space @ rest V̇D = V̇E – V̇A
Calculation of Alveolar ventilation @ exercise V̇A = Vf exercise • (VT exercise– VD exercise)
Calculation of Dead space @ exercise V̇D = V̇D exercise – V̇f exercise
Which percent of the ventilated air participated in gas exchange during rest & exercise ? -Rest: 4.2L-min / 60L-min • 100% = ~70% -Exercise: 94.7%
during exercise the respiratory efficiency of ventilation increases
Do respiratory muscles fatigue during exercise? Current evidence suggests that respiratory muscles do fatigue during exercise
Do respiratory muscles adapt to training? -Yes!!! -^ increased oxidative capacity improves respiratory muscle endurance -v reduces work of breathing
Ventilatory failure Gas exchange is not complete
Composition of dry atmosphere air - Oxygen (O2) - Nitrogen (N2) - Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Oxygen (O2) 20.93%
Nitrogen (N2) 79.04%
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) .03%
Oxygen (O2) Functional concentration 0.2093
Nitrogen (N2) Functional concentration 0.7904%
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Functional concentration 0.000
Dalton’s Law Total pressure exerted by mixture of gas is equal to the sum of the pressure
Partial pressure (P): the pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture of gases
Partial pressure of gasses is directly proportional to their fractional concentration in the mixture of gases
Calculation of Partial pressure Pair = PN2 + PO2 + PCO2
Created by: rmart11



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