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KIN 3600

lec 23

Angiogenesis the development of new blood vessels
Several factors contribute to gradation of force -Gradual recruitment of motor units into action -Gradual increase in the force output of individual motor units already recruited into action
stronger is the stimulus intensity descending from brain motor cortex ... -the higher is the frequency of action potentials -greater is the number of α-motoneurons stimulated -larger is the number of motor units contracting -the larger is the developed force
With progressive increments in the stimulus intensity... -progressively larger and larger α-motoneurons are stimulated - progressively larger and larger motor units are recruited into action -resulting in an exponential increase in the force output.
Gradual change in motor unit profile from SO to FG results in gradual increase in force output with the recruitment of progressively larger motor units
With progressive increments in the stimulus intensity from motor cortex to the α-motoneuronal pool of a muscle -results in a gradual increase in the firing frequency of the α-motoneurons -resulting in a gradual increase in the force output of the recruited motor units (rate coding)
Rate Coding associate with the increase in Ca++ concentration of the sarcoplasm
Specific training increases what? anaerobic or aerobic capacity of both muscle fiber types
Type IIx --> IIa strength and endurance training
Type IIa --> I extensive endurance training
Specific training may also alter what? the muscle fiber types for as long as the training continues
Endurance training increases capillary density and Cap/MF ratio of muscles by about 30 to 40 % in both muscle fiber types.
High resistance strength training actually decreases - capillary density because the hypertrophy of fibers is not accompanied by the increase in the number of capillaries. -Capillary/Muscle fiber ratio remains the same.
Body building and lower resistance strength training capillary density remains unchanged - because the hypertrophy is accompanied by the increase in the number of capillaries per fiber (30% increase in diameter and 30 % increase in the number of capillaries/fiber) -Capillary/Muscle fiber ratio increases.
Increase in muscular strength is due to two factors Anatomical Factor Neural factors
Anatomical Factor -Hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers due to the ^increase in the # of myofibrils within each muscle fiber -No hyperplasia in humans
Neural factors : central NS Greater synchronization of motor unit actions: -Decreased stimulation threshold of α-motoneurons -Possible increased discharge frequency of motoneurons located in the brain cortex -Decreased central inhibition
Neural factors : peripheral NS -Decreased inhibition from Golgi Tendon Organs -Enhanced stimulation from muscle spindles
Main Function of Pulmonary System Provide Interface for Gas Exchange
what does the Pulmonary System maintain & regulate Acid-Base Balance and regulate Blood Pressure
what does Pulmonary System provide Evaporative Cooling of Body
Type II alveolar cells produce surfactant which reduces the surface tension of water lining the alveolar walls
External respiration – gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries – venous blood is converted to arterial blood
Internal respiration - gas exchange between the blood in systemic capillaries and the tissues cells – arterial blood is converted to venous blood -Gas exchange takes place in less than 1 second
Conducting Zone – Anatomic Dead Space – no gas exchange takes place
Conducting Zone function -Conduction air from atmosphere to alveoli -Humidification of the air -Warming of the air -Filtration of the air -Detoxification of the air
Respiratory Zone Gas Exchange
Respiratory Zone composed of -Respiratory bronchioles -Alveolar ducts -Alveolar sacks -Alveoli
Respiratory membrane Two cell thick membrane - alveolar and pulmonary capillary walls thickness - 0.2-0.5μm
Created by: rmart11