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KIN 3600

lec 22

increase % SO Endurance training
increase % FT Sprinters
Average persons SO & FT 50% / 50%
Factors affecting the force & power production - Myogenic or intrinsic factors - Length-tension relationship - Force-velocity relation
Length-tension relationship - Length of muscle affects overlap between the thick & thin filaments - # cross bridges activated
Force-velocity relation The amount of force developed during muscular contractions also depend on the velocity of the contraction
^ Contraction v velocity
v Contraction ^ Velocity
FT develops what? larger peak force
ST contracts what? higher velocity
Velocity = 0 the highest amount of force (isometric)
Po maximal force when velocity is 0
o VMax Max velocity of contraction when Force = 0
Why do FT contract @ higher velocity? - What is the underlying mechanism? FG fibers have higher ATPase activity – higher rate of ATP hydrolysis – higher rate of energy transformation. – higher rate of cross bridge recycling – higher contractile velocity (unloaded or @ any given force)
what makes a muscle develop force faster - Force depends on # of cross bridges that are in power/active - Depends. On how many troponins are saturated with calcium
Rate of force depends on Ca++ released
^ Ca++ = ^ Cross bridges = ^ force
FG fibers develop force @ higher rate it has well-developed (denser) SR network - Higher rate of Ca++ release – higher rate of force development
Which MF develop force faster FG fibers
Ca++ Re-uptake is also faster in what resulting in faster relaxation (FT)
Static (isometric) action Limb does not move but muscle contracts
Dynamic (isotonic) Action Developing force with lengthening or shortening
Concentric muscular action Shorten/contraction
Eccentric muscular action • Lengthening • Hypertension happens here
Isokinetic muscular action - Same movement of velocity - Velocity remains same
Muscle develops larger force when its forcibility being stretched - Eccentric
Power-velocity Relationship ^ velocity of contraction the ^ power output
Further ^ in velocity results in v Power output
Optimal Velocity the velocity of muscular action @ which the P.O. is maximal
^O.P. @ any given velocity FT have ^higher P.O. than S.O.
@ any P.O S.O. contracts faster than FT
Effect of FG on the power velocity relationship during concentric muscular action - FG = ^ P.O. @ any given velocity - FG = v Velocity @ any given P.O. - FG = ^ Optimal velocity
Highest Power output achieved at 30% velocity max
Power-velocity the P.O is greater in a muscle of different fiber type composition @ any given velocity the P.O. is greater in a muscle with higher % of FT fibers
The peak power of muscles increases with what? velocity up to angular velocity of 200-300 degrees-sec
In vivo Force developed by muscles in regulated by 2 mechanisms
Necrogenic regulation of muscle 2 mechanisms 1. BY regulating the # of motor units recruited into action – up to 100-fold increase the force output 2. By regulating the force output via increasing the firing frequency of a motoneurons (Rate coding - 4-fold)
Specific training ^ anaerobic & aerobic capacity of both MF types
Types IIx --> IIa Both strength & endurance training
Type IIa --> I Extensive endurance training
Endurance training ^ aerobic capacity
Created by: rmart11