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Chapter 10 glossary

Social influence The effects of the presence or actions of others, either real or imagined, on the way people think, feel and behave
Group Any collection of two or more people who interact with and influence one another and who share a common purpose
Collective (aggregate) A gathering of people who have minimal direct interaction
Status Importance if an individual's position in the group, as perceived by members of the group
Power Ability to control or influence the thoughts, feelings or behaviour of another person
Social power When power is involved in a social interaction
Reward power Ability to give positive consequences or remove negative consequences in response to specific behaviour
Coercive power Ability to give negative consequences or remove positive consequences in response to specific behaviour
Legitimate power An individual's status or position in a group, institution or society in general gives them the right to exercise power over those with a lower status or with less authority
Referent power Individuals identity with or want to be like or liked by this person
Expert power Having specific knowledge and skills that are desirable or needed
Informational power Having resources or information that are useful and are not available elsewhere
Role Behaviour adopted by an individual or assigned to them that influences the way in which they function or act in different situations and life in general
Role expectations An expectation by other members of the group that the individual will behave in a way that is consistant with the role
Obedience Follow the commands of someone with authority, or the rules and laws in our society
Milgram's experiments on obedience Individuals would obey an authority figure who was instructing them to inflict pain on another person. Participants were informed that they were involved in a study of 'the effects of punishment on learning'
Social proximity The closeness between two or more people. This may include the physical distance between the people as well as the closeness of their relationship.
Legitimacy of authority figures The individual is also more likely to be obedient when the authority figure is perceived as being legitimate and having power
Group pressure An individual is more likely to be obedient where there is little or no group support for resisting the authority figure
Conformity The tendency to adjust ones thoughts, feelings or behaviour in ways that are in agreement with those of a particular individual or group
Asch's experiments on conformity Asch investigated group pressure to conform
Factors affecting conformity •the size of the group •whether or not the group members are unanimous in their views •whether the group is being viewed as valuable source of information •cultural background •social loafing
Group size Conformity increased with group size
Unanimity Complete agreement among the other group members
Informational influence Results from a need for direction and information on how to respond in a specific situation
Normative influence Our response in a group situation is guided by one or more social norms
Culture The ideas, customs and social behaviour of a particular people or socie
Social loafing The tendency of an individual to make less effort when involved in a group activity than when working alone
Deindividuation The loss of individuality, or the sense of anonymity, that can occur in a group situation
Anonymity in a group When people feel invisible and less accountable for their actions, they may choose to conform in a group which is behaving in ways they otherwise would not
Shift in attention When individuals are with others in a group, their attention is often focused on the activities of the group and events in the environment
Pro-social behaviour Everyday acts of helping others, as well as helping that involves personal cost to the helper. It is also intentional
Situational factors Influences that do not occur from within the individual but from elsewhere like the environment and others around you
Noticing the situation Noticing what is going on around you. It may be positive or negative. When individuals are on their own they are quicker to notice something 'different' or 'unusual' than when they are in a group
Interpreting the situation The thought process of interpreting the situation (if it is positive or negative and if you need to help)
Taking responsibility for helping Being able to take responsibility in helping the situation instead of just sitting back and watching
The bystander effect The tendency for individuals to be less likely to help another person in need when other bystanders are present, or believed to be present, as compared to when they are alone
Social norms Standards that govern what people should or should not do in different social situations
Reciprocity norm To help others who help us
Social responsibility norm Help those who need help because it is our responsibility or duty to do so
Empathy The ability to identify with and understand another person's feelings or difficulties
Mood Your mood effects whether you are more likely to help in a situation. You are more likely to help when in a good mood and less likely to help if you are in a bad mood
Competence Our actual or perceived ability to help can influence whether or not we help in a specific situation, as well as the type of help we may offer
Diffusion of responsibility The belief that in a situation where help is required and others are present, one or more other people will or should take responsibility for helping
Audience inhibition Not helping another person because of a fear of appearing foolish in the presents of others
Cost-benefit analysis AN individual weighing up the personal and social costs of helping against the benefits of helping
Bullying Repeated physical or psychological aggressive behavior by a person or group directed towards a less powerful person or group that is intended to cause harm, distress or fear
Physical bullying Hitting, kicking, tripping, pinching and pushing or damaging property
Verbal bullying Name calling, insults, teasing, threatening, intimidating, homophobic or racist remarks, or verbal abuse
Covert bullying Carried out behind the bullied person's back, it is hidden, unacknowledged and/or unaddressed by adults. It is designed to harm someone's social reputation and/or cause humiliation
Cyberbullying Carried out using digital technologies, including hardware such as computers and smartphones and software such as social media, instant messaging, texts, websites and other
Compliance Changing ones behaviour due to the request or direction of another person. Compliance does not rely on being in a position of power or authority over others.
Created by: georgia.sampson



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