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Respiratory system

Respiratory system part 1&2

Where does cellular respiration occur? mitochondria
What does cellular respiration produce? ATP
What does cellular respiration consume? What is its waste? oxygen; carbon dioxide
How does oxygen get into the body? diffuses across exchange surfaces of the lungs from the air
Oxygen is carried by what cells? cells of the cardiovascular system
5 functions of the respiratory system: Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment Produces sounds Participates in olfactory sense
What is considered upper respiratory? everything above the larynx Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx (throat)
What is included in the lower respiratory? Everything Larynx and below: Larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi and bronchioles (air-conducting passageways), and alveoli (gas pockets for air)
2 ways to classify respiratory system: structural and functional
3 functional areas of the respiratory system: respiratory tract; conducting zone; respiratory zone
What is included in the respiratory tract? passageways carrying things too and from the gas exchange surfaces
What is the job of the conducting zone? Where is it? Filter, warm, and moisten air from outside Nose to terminal bronchioles (inside lungs)
What is job of Respiratory zone? Where is it? Where gas exchange occurs within the lungs Respiratory bronchioles to alveoli
Where does all gas exchange take place? Alveoli "little lungs"
Job of Respiratory Epithelium: for gasses to exchange efficiently
Is sound inhaling or exhaling? exhaling
Difference between upper and lower respiratory: Upper= still deciding between food and airway (staff); lower= airway exchange (strep)
Describe how alveolar walls must be: thin with great surface area which creates surface area (About the surface area of a tennis court)
Where does mucosa line? the conducting zone
What does the mucosa provide? filtration for respiratory defense (clears debris/pathogens from inhaled air)
2 layers to respiratory mucosa: 1) Lamina propria 2) epithelial layer
Which mucosa layer is on top and faces the lumen? epithelial (lamina propria is on conducting zone)
Which mucosa is the UNDERLYING layer of areolar tissue that supports the respiratory system? Lamina propria
Which layer of mucosa contains the mucous glands? Lamina propria
What encircle the lumen of the bronchioles? Of which mucosa layer are these a part of? smooth muscle cells; lamina propria
Which layer of mucosa plays a response in asthma attacks? Lamina Propria bc smooth muscle is what constricts around the bronchioles
From mouth down respiratory system: 1st layer of Epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium in pharynx
From mouth down respiratory system: 2nd layer of Epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells in lower respiratory
From mouth down respiratory system: 3rd layer of Epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium with scattered cilia in bronchioles (muscle layer)
From mouth down respiratory system: 4th layer of Epithelium Simple squamous epithelium of alveoli with special cells attached to walls (pushing gas across)
Why is there no mucous in the mouth? We have Saliva instead (still "decision tree")
4 Components to the respiratory defense system: 1) Mucous 2)Cilia 3)Hairs 4) Alveolar macrophages all these filter out pathogens!
What produces mucous? both cells (goblet) and glands
Where is mucous? bathes exposed surfaces
Job of Cilia: sweep debris caught in mucous toward the pharynx
What is it called when mucous and cilia work together? Why? mucociliary escalator, goes up the escalator then rolls over the side into the esophagus and is neutralized in the stomach by HCL
Where are the hairs for the respiratory system and what is their job? in the nasal cavity; removing large particles
Another name for Alveolar macrophages: dust cells
What do alveolar macrophages do? engulf small particles that reach lungs
Where is alveolar epithelium? Lines gas exchange surfaces of alveoli
What is the job of alveolar macrophages? eat whatever mucous misses
When a patient has a bacterial infection, what kind of a cough do they have? wet and croopy (body is throwing a bunch of water on it)
Describe the pathway of air through the external structures of the nose in the respiratory system: Nasal cavity and turbinates Internal nares (choanae) Nasal Mucosa
What step does breathing through your mouth bypass? The Nasal Mucosa warms and humidifies inhaled air for arrival at lower respiratory organs- no warming/humidifying/catching dust
What system(s) is the pharynx involved in? respiratory & digestive
What sinus is right below your ear? Mastoid (old lady boob)- makes head lighter + resonance of voice
Where does the Pharynx extend from and too? Internal Nares-tip of entrance of larynx
Why should you never avoid sinus infection? because it shares a venous return with your face
3 pieces to the pharynx: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx
What is the superior portion of the pharynx? Nasopharynx
What portion of the pharynx has cilia to catch pathogens and dust? Nasopharynx
What tonsils does the Nasopharynx contain What other major structure? Contains pharyngeal tonsils and openings to left and right auditory tubes (Eustachian tubes)
What is the middle portion of the pharhynx that contains the tongue? Oropharynx
What part of the pharynx is in the back of the oral cavity? Oropharynx
What is the lower portion of the throat (part of pharynx) above the larynx? laryngopharynx
Where does the laryngopharynx extend from/to? Extends from hyoid bone and epiglottis to the division of larynx (air) and esophagus (food)
3 functions of Nasopharynx: 1) Respiration 2) Fighting infections 3)Drainage System
How does the Nasopharynx function in respiration? Has ciliated respiratory epithelium to catch dust and pathogens
How does the Nasopharynx fight infection? Has lymphatic tissue
How does the Nasopharynx serve as a drainage system? Middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the auditory (Eustachian) tube which drains all middle ear secretions
How is sound made? pushing air through lungs and trying to connect that noise with the brain to form words + vocal chords stretched across glottis resonates when air is pushed across
where is the larynx? below the laryngopharynx
What is the Glottis? Opening of airway through the larynx
What is the Epiglottis? elastic cartilage gatekeeper that forms flap over glottis to block trachea when swallowing food
What type of cartilage is the thyroid cartilage made of? Hyaline
What is the nickname of the thyroid cartilage? Adam's apple (laryngeal prominence)
What kind of cartilage is the cricoid cartilage made of? Where is it? hyaline cartilage ring shaped base of larynx
Describe the vocal chords: 2 pairs of ligaments stretched across the glottis
T/F: There are true and false vocal chords: True
Name and job of false vocal chords: vestibular ligaments: prevent food from entering glottis
Name and job of true vocal chords: vocal ligaments; vibrate sound and make speech
Where is the cricoid cartilage? start at thyroid cartilage (adam's apple), then go down and feel the notch and the bump below the notch is the cricoid cartilage
Epiglottis only closes if... a large enough bolus of food shuts it (don't talk and eat it's confusing)
Below cricoid cartilage is what? tracheal rings
What protects the back of the throat? cricoid cartilage (class ring facing backwards)
Trachea means what? Windpipe
What shape are tracheal cartilages? C shaped
What way do the C shaped tracheal rings open? Posteriorly (allow esophagus to expand when swallowing bolus)
Where are Bronchi? Extend from trachea down into the lungs
Only bones protecting the throat: cervical vertebrae
The Larynx is a cartilaginous tube that surrounds the ____ but is protected by ________. Glottis; Epiglottis
Function of Glottis: 'voice box' of larynx
Glottis protected by? Vestibular and vocal folds
3 cartilages of the larynx: Epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid
Epiglottis is composed of: elastic cartilage
Describe how the larynx and Epiglottis work together from preventing food/water from entering the Glottis during swallowing: The larynx elevates and the epiglottis folds over
What is the largest of the three cartilages? Thyroid
Formal name for Adam's apple laryngeal prominence
Analogy for the shape of the cricoid cartilage: ring with face posterior
What does cricoid cartilage have that helps you make sounds through your vocal chords? arytenoids
How are sound waves produced? Air passes through the glottis which vibrates the vocal chords which produces sound waves
What triggers Cough Reflex? When food or liquid hits the vestibular folds or cartilage
How does Cough Reflex occur? Glottis is kept closed until Thoracic and Abdominal mm contract then opens suddenly to allow for blast of to clear whatever is blocking the Glottis
Trachea extends from what "C to C?" cricoid cartilage to carina (the fork into right and left pulmonary bronchi)
Where are mucous glands to keep the trachea moist found? The submucosa which are below the tracheal mucosa
Analogy for Carina when drawing: the underpants
Job of Tracheal Cartilages: keep Trachea open at all times
What is the "Roof" of the airway? Glottis
If something gets past the dumb Epiglottis, what is your second defense? vocal folds
Draw the Bronchial tree and label the following parts: Main Bronchi (Primary) Lobar Bronchi (Secondary) Segmental Bronchi (Tertiary) Bronchopulmonary segment Bronchioles: Terminal Respiratory
How many lobar bronchi on the Right? 3
How many lobar bronchi on the left? 2
Does the trachea ever contract? NO
What happens to the cartilage as it gets further away from the tracheal cartilage? it becomes smooth muscle ( where you can give someone a muscle relaxer during an asthma attack)
Where is the area of transition between the cartilage and smooth muscle? bronchopulmonary
The terminal bronchial is the end of what? air movement (conducting zone)
The Respiratory Bronchial is the beginning of what? gas exchange (respiratory zone)
What separates the two main bronchus? Carina
Term for two main bronchus: Primary
Which primary branch is larger? Right
Which part of the bronchus is an object most likely to go down? Why? Right Primary Bronchus due to most vertical angle
Why is the left bronchus more angled? Goes over cardiac notch at an acute angle
Another name for Lobar bronchi: secondary
At what level do the bronchi supply the lungs? each lobar bronchi
What do the lobar bronchi have instead of c rings? cartilage plates
Do Bronchioles have cartilage? No- dominated by smooth muscle
Describe bronchioles in comparison to what they are in the cardiovascular system: Bronchioles are the arterioles of the respiratory system (exchange zone)
What controls air flow (resistance) at the bronchiole level? diameter changes
Two types of bronchioles: terminal and respiratory
One tertiary bronchus forms how many terminal bronchioles? 6500!!
Respiratory Bronchioles lead into what? Alveolar ducts
Describe bronchoconstriction: Constricts bronchi by smooth mm creating tension folds in mucosa
2 examples of bronchoconstriction: asthma and histamine release
What is Asthma? excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction
Where is severe resistance created during an asthma attack? terminal bronchioles
What is bronchodilation? dilation of bronchial airways- caused by stimulation of Sympathetic ANS
What do inhalers do? reduce resistance through bronchodilation
3 gas exchange structures: Respiratory bronchioles Alveoli Blood-Air Barrier (gas exchange through 3 layers)
What is the thinnest, most delicate branch of the three segments? Respiratory bronchioles
Job of Respiratory bronchioles: Deliver oxygen to gas exchange surface of the lungs
What happens to pathogens that make it to the respiratory bronchioles? Air has been filtered and humidified before arriving here – since no mucous glands here, any pathogen which makes it this far is getting into the lungs
Function of Alveolar ducts: Connection between respiratory bronchiole and alveolar sac
What is an alveolar sac? Two or more alveoli that share a common opening
What is/where is an alveolus? Cup-shaped outpouching of simple squamous epithelium Has elastic membrane for recoil after every breath Connected directly to the gas exchange membrane (O2 for CO2) at the capillary side of lungs
Which segment is intrapulmonary (in the lung): tertiary
3 types of alveolar epithelium: type 1 pneumocyte, alveolar mac, and type 2 pneumocyte
Describe type 1 pneumocytes: simple squamous cells forming the alveolar epithelium
Describe alveolar macs: Free macs patrolling epithelial surface for pathogens
Another name for alveolar macrophages dust cells
What is the blood air area? last barrier between the outside world and you
Another name for type 2 pneumocytes: septal cells
Function of septal cells: Surfactant production Oily secretion that breaks hydrogen bonds so alveolar walls can be ‘unstuck’ after each exhale
Job of surfactant: Reduces surface tension in thin layer of water coating insides of alveolar sacs Attraction of H+ bonds/water to itself creates surface tension; Prevents collapse of alveolar sacs
What happens if there is a lack of surfactant? causes alveoli to collapse after each exhalation RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) results, ARDS (Adult respiratory distress syndrome), IRDS (Infant respiratory distress syndrome)
Where does gas exchange occur? the Blood-air barrier
3 layers to the blood-air barrier: 1) Alveolar cell barrier 2)Fused basement membrane 3) Capillary Endothelial layer
Alveolar cell layer is made of: Squamous epithelial cells lining the alveolus
Fused basement membrane is where? alveolar and endothelial cells
Capillary endothelial layer is made of: Endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary
Alveolus are what: "baby lungs"- inflate and deflate
What two things are able to diffuse through the bilayer quickly? oxygen and CO2
Describe the surface area of the blood-air barrier: LARGE
Why does diffusion across the blood-air barrier need to be fast? because O2 needs to make a long trip and so needs to move fast to keep O2 from diffusing out too early
When a baby doesn't have surfactant, what happens? IRDS: they can't take their first breath- given an injection
What two things do the lungs contain? the bronchiole trees, and the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system
How many lobes to the right lung? 3
How many lobes to the left lung? 2
Where is the most common place for a tumor? Apex (inferior to clavicle)
What are the lungs surrounded by? 2 pleural cavities
Where is the base of the lungs? resting on the diaphragm
What is the Hilum? Where pulmonary nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics enter the lung
What is the root of the lungs? complex network of nerves and vessels in the hilum
Where is the root of the lungs anchored? mediastinum
Which lung is longer? left, right has to accommodate the liver but make room for the heart
What is left on the lungs at medial margin? Impression of the heart
3 things that protect the lungs: visceral pleura (mbrn on lungs), pleural fluid (reduces friction btw 2 during breathing), and parietal pleura
What is a pulmonary embolism? When a large emboli stops blood flow in a pulmonary artery completely to a whole group of lobules or alveoli(if left- that part collapses)
Does a thrombus, or embolus leave the clot and travel through vessel? Embolus "Exit"
Which kind of breathing is normal? YOU want Eupnea (YOUPnea) Quiet breathing
Name for deep breathing? diaphragmic breathing
Name for shallow breathing: costal breathing
forced breathing is called what? Hyperpnea
What is elastic rebound? When inhalation muscles relax and alveoli returned to original position
Intrapulmonary means.... inside the lung (pressure created when alveoli contract)
intrapleural means... outside the lungs (pressure created by pleural cavities)
What is atmospheric pressure? 760 mm hg
When you inhale, you create a pressure of... -1 (759)
When you exhale, you create a pressure of... 1 (761)
Atmospheric pressure measures what pressure? Intrapulmonary
What and where do hydrogen bonds create? *** SUCTION between parietal and visceral surfaces
What does pleural pressure avg? -4mm hg
This pulls the lungs upwards: ribs
This pulls the lungs downwards: diaphragm
What breaks intrapleural suction? pneumothorax
Analogy for what the friction between the two membranes is like: What is pneumothorax like in comparison to that? sliding wet glass across a wet countertop; the tilt that breaks contact
What is the collapsed lung result of pneumothorax? Atelectasis
Minimal is part of.... Residual
Avg # breaths per minute: 12-20
Avg. Tidal volume for males and females 500
Why will you never get 500? because there are 150 of dead air that never makes it to the lungs- this number is alveolar ventilation
What is the true respiratory generation? alveolar ventilation
When someone has a panic attack, what happens? they only are getting 3 liters of air instead of 4.2/5: from lack of oxygen
Why do people lie down when you have a panic attack? because then your heart doesn't have to pump against gravity. When pumping on a horizontal plane, easier to get oxygen to brain
Why do you lose oxygen even though you're breathing faster? anatomical dead space increases (300 mL – 150 mL = 150 mL to put into RMV formula! 20 RR x 150 mL = 3000 mL/min or 3 L/min )
What is Boyle's law for? INVERSE (opposite) Volume and Pressure
3 things gasses depend on: 1- concentration gradient 2- temperature 3- gas laws
What is Dalton's law for? partial pressures
What is Henry's law for? Diffusion of gasses
Air is what percent O2? What does this mean? 20.9; very crowded atmosphere
What is partial pressure? The pressure contributed by a single gas in a mixture of gases
When adding P(O2, N2, H2O, and CO2), what should this = in mm hg? 760
What outside a solution will cause it to go into a solution? more pressure
What inside a solution will cause it to go out of a solution? less pressure outside (soda goes flat)
What laws do these partial pressures have to do with? Henry's law
What is Henry's law dependent on? temperature
Eventually, because of henry's law, a gas in a solution will reach what? Equalibrium
What are pressure, temperature, and equilibrium all dependent on in a solution? the solubility of that solution
If pressure increases, more gas will go where? into a solution
If pressure decreases, more gas will go where? out of a solution
In a soda can, pressure is high, what other thing is high? solubility
Describe air by the time it reaches the Alveoli Warm, filtered, humidified
What is the most important value in lecture? Alveolar ventilation (removal of the dead air the 150 that never make it to the Alveoli)
Is Gas exchange Efficient? YES
5 reasons gas exchange is efficient: substantial differences in partial pressure, distances involved are short, )O2 + Co2 are lipid soluble, surface area is large, blood flow and air flow are coordinated
What binds to iron ions in hemoglobin molecules? O2
What is it called when hemoglobin is carrying oxygen? oxyhemoglobin
Each hemoglobin binds how many Oxygen? 4
What is hemoglobin saturation? The percentage of heme units in a hemoglobin molecule that contain bound oxygen
Factors affecting hemoglobin saturation: Amount of oxygen PO2 in blood Blood pH Temperature of blood BPG
Explain the hemoglobin saturation curve it's like when you want to be alone then your dad walks in then your brother decides to come over... you get less resistant to more people coming in each time
How does hemoglobin make it easier for O2 to bind? changes shape
Explain what happens in carbon monoxide poisoning Hemoglobin much prefers carbon monoxide to oxygen and so when your in an area of carbon monoxide, then carbon monoxide takes the place of Oxygen in the bloodstream and so the person dies
How much O2 does hemoglobin usually carry? 3/4 full tank
What happens to Hemoglobin in acidic situations (such as exercise)? it changes shape and therefore releases O2
Why does Hemoglobin fall apart? due to the bohr effect of the carbonic acid formation
What enzyme is the catalyst for the reaction that creates carbonic acid inside a RBC? When does this occur? carbonic anhydrase; high P CO2
What happens after carbonic acid is formed? It immediately dissociates into H+ and HCO3
What causes PH to lower in the blood? When the dissociation happens, the H+ ion moves out because Cl- moves in as an anti porter and draws the bicarb out
Where does Carbonic acid go when it breaks apart into carbon dioxide and water (raising ph)? lungs and kidneys
What is the result of a low P CO2 on a RBC? it will not release oxygen
What happens to carbonic acid when there's a high P CO2? It dissociates into bicarb and H+ ion
Low P CO2 means what happens to hydrogen? it comes into the RBC
What happens when H+ comes into the RBC? bicarb grabs it and then it dissociates into water and carbon dioxide.
What happens after bicarb separates into water and carbon dioxide inside the RBC? it goes to either the kidneys or lungs
What happens to hemoglobin when our body temperature goes up (exercise/fight or flight)? it releases more oxygen
What happens when our body temperature goes down? hemoglobin holds oxygen more tightly
2 centers of the brain that control unconscious breathing: Pontine respiratory gp. ; Medullary respiratory gp.
What is the center of the brain known as the pacemaker of the respiratory system? Pre-Botzinger complex
Created by: smhoffman



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