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Female reproductive

Female Gonad: ovaries
Female Gametes: ova
What is the Mons Pubis (mons): mound of hair covered adipose tissue
What does Mons pubis overlie? pubic symphysis
Males have a prostate, women have a: uterus
Where does a baby grow? uterus
Where is the uterus? between the bladder and rectum
Is the mons pubis all one piece? no; Divides into a furrow at the base to become the pudendal cleft and labia majora
Mons Pubis is sensitive to what hormone? estrogen (meaning it grows/shrinks during different stages of life)
Scrotum in males is the equivalent to what in females? labia majora
tip of penis (spongiosum) is equivalent to what in females? labia minora
labia means.... lips
vagina means... infolding
difference between labia majora and minora: labia majora has hair; minora does not
What is the labia majora? thick, external folds of skin
What two types of tissue make up the labia majora and labia minora? adipose and fibrous
Where are the two labia majora? to either side of the vestibule
What does the labia majora contain? pubic hair, sebaceous and sweat glands
labia majora close off the ___ and form the ___ vulva; pudental cleft (seam down the middle)
what evolves into the scrotum in males and the labia majora in females?
Describe the labia minora: Smaller fold of skin lying within the labia majora, one to either side of vestibule
Does the labia minora have hair? no
Does the labia minora contain fat? no
What does the labia majora contain? Why? sebaceous glands- oil to lubricate and protect against infection
What evolves into the shaft of the penis in males and the labia minora in females? urogenital fold
What is the longitudinal cleft between the labia minora? vestibule
What contains urethral and vaginal openings? vestibule
Describe the greater vestibular (Bartholin's glands): On either side of the vaginal opening; secrete mucous through tiny ducts; keep vulva moist; gets infected; responsible for female ejaculation
Describe the lesser vestibular glands (skene's glands): open near urinary opening; keep vulva moist
How long is the vagina? 4 inches
What is the clitoris? mass of erectile tissue; source of sexual stimulation
Which gland gets cysts that must be surgically corrected? Bartholins
How many nerve endings in the clitoris? 8,000
What part of the clitoris is analogous to the penis? glans clitoris
What is the cover over the clitoris formed by the labia minora called? prepuce
What forms both the glans of the penis and the glans of the clitoris? genital tubercle
What is the hymen? Thin layer of mucus membrane occluding (blocking) vaginal opening in young girls
Is the hymen proof of virginity? No, it can be torn by running, any everyday movement
What can a woman not do if she has a complete hymen? menstrate
The Pubic Ramus is wider in what gender? females
Where is the Perineum? Area of skin between the vaginal opening and anus in females; between the scrotum and anus in males
The urogenital triangle is anterior or posterior in both men and women? anterior
What does the urogenital triangle contain in males? roots of external genitalia
What does the urogenital triangle contain in females? openings of urethra and vagina
What triangle contains the anus in both women and men? anal triangle
Vagina is the connection between what two things? vaginal orifice (opening) and uterine os (opening)
Describe the vagina: Fibromuscular, elastic tube
A mature female has what kind of epithelium in the vagina? stratified squamous epithelium
Why is tissue important in sexual abuse cases? because you can tell if there has been abuse because young girls have stratified cuboidal which can't repair itself whereas stratified squamous in adults can repair itself when rubbed during sex but the tissue can't in young girls
How is the Vagina normally situated? normally collapsed so posterior and anterior walls contact each other
Why is the vagina normally collapsed? Separates to accommodate sexual activity Menstrual flow passes through to outside from uterus Allows baby natural birth exit from uterus
What does the vagina contain to increase surface area? Rugae
How is the Vagina kept moist? secretions from cervix and greater vestibular glands
What does the vagina convert glycogen into? lactic acid
Why does the vagina convert glycogen into lactic acid? acidic protection from infection
Job of the uterus Houses and nurtures growing embryo from time of implantation to delivery
Describe the uterus structure: hollow, muscular, pear-shaped
Where is the uterus located? between the bladder (anterior) and the rectum (posterior)
Where does fertilization occur? fallopian/uterine tube
Three parts to the uterus: fundus, body, cervix
Describe the size of the uterus: small till reproductive age when becomes size of a fist; then shrinks when Estrogen goes away because no longer needed
What is the domed upmost portion of the uterus? fundus
What part of the uterus connects the uterine tubes? fundus
What is the central region of the uterus? body
What is the inferior end of the uterus? cervix
What is the narrow central canal that connects the uterus to the vagina? cervix
What do glands in the cervical canal secrete? mucous
When do the glands in the cervical canal secrete mucous? ovulation
Lower part of the uterus projects down into the what? vaginal vault
Pockets in the uterus are called? fornices
Where are women given pap smears? cervix (for cancer)
Full versus partial hysterectomy: Full: remove uterus and cervix; partial: only uterus removed
Cervix has what two openings? internal (os) and external (os)
3 layers to the uterus: Peri, myo, and endo metrium
This layer of the uterus is continuous with the broad ligament: Perimetrium
This layer of the uterus is made of smooth muscle: myometrium
This layer of the uterus is where oxytocin stimulates contractions during the delivery of a baby: myometrium
Which layer of the uterus is the innermost layer of the uterus where the embryo attaches? endometrium
Which layer is shed during menstruation? endometrium
Where is Oxytocin produced? Posterior Pituitary (with ADH "sex and alcohol")
2 layers of the Endometrium: Permanent Basal layer and Stratum functionalis
Where is the Permanent Basal layer? next to myometrium
Which layer is NOT shed during menstruation? permanent basal layer
Where is the stratum functionalis? innermost layer facing the lumen of the uterus
What happens to the stratum functionalis during the first half of the menstrual cycle? thickens, becoming rich in blood vessels
What does the stratum functionalis prepare for? fertilized egg
If pregnancy does not occur, what action happens in the uterus?
What arises every month? new functional layer arises from basal layer
Where is the other place in the body that is constantly renewing vessels? olfactory bulbs
3 parts of uterine/fallopian tube: isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum
Where does the uterine/fallopian tube exit? fundus
What part of the uterine tube is the portion attached to the uterus? isthmus
Where in the fallopian tube is the site of fertilization? ampulla
the ampulla is lined with what? why? cilia; to propel the egg forward towards the isthmus into the uterus
What is the distal, funnel-shaped end of the fallopian tube called? infundibulum
Does the infundibulum attach directly to the ovaries? NO
What structure does the infundibulum contain? fimbriae
What do fimbriae do? finger like projections that sweep egg from tube into the ovaries
What is ovulation? releasing of egg by ovary
Where do the fimbriae sweep the egg? into the infundibulum
what motions move the ova towards the uterus? peristaltic motions of the cilia
What of the uterine tube secretes nourishing, lubricating mucous? epithelium
What is the purpose of mucous in the uterine tube? medium in which both the egg and sperm use to swim
What is the term for when both ova and sperm meet? zygote
How in terms of location do women ovulate each month? On different sides
What are ovaries? Gonads that make Gametes
Are ovaries removed during hysterectomy? No, so hormonal regulation still present
Where are the ovaries? situated to either side of the uterus
What holds the ovaries in place? ovarian ligament and broad ligament
2 major functions of ovaries: Produce female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone Produce and release the ova (eggs)
Which ligament turns into the ovarian ligament when it hits the illiac crest? suspensory ligament
What does the word primordial mean? back in the day- the beginning
What structure in females is primordial? ovarian follicle
Are females born with complete ova? can they make more? yes, females are born with a complete and finite number of eggs
follicle is a what? sitting site for an immature egg (water balloon with egg inside)
an immature egg is an... Oocyte
What kind of division do follicles undergo during the fetal period? Mitosis, mitosis, meiosis
What happens to follicles pre-puberty? their division is halted
primordial follicles consists of: potential ova with single layer of follicular cells
First half of the month is controlled by what hormone? Estrogen
The second half of the month is controlled by what hormone? Progesterone
Scrotum means_______ follicle means __________. Bag; little bag
Another name for menstrual cycle: Endometrial cycle
Average menstrual cycle is this many days: 28
2nd half of the menstrual cycle is called the what phase: Leuteal
Growth of the follicle is controlled by: FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
The last follicle stage is called what? Graafian follicle
FSH is from where? anterior pituitary
When does a follicle become active? Primary follicle is dormant; 1st mences is marked by transition into a secondary follicle (active)
What happens with secondary follicles? 5 or ten of them migrate towards the surface and one of them gets taken and the others are reabsorbed
What kicks on Estrogen? what does Estrogen do? FSH; Estrogen causes endometrium to grow
Describe what happens with graafian follicles? They have a "water blister" of fluid behind them that serves as gun powder behind the egg to push through the tissues of the ovary (OVULATION)
What hormone causes the egg to burst out of the ovaries? Lutenizing hormone
What is left behind the "bursted" egg? Luteum (hints Luteal phase)
purpose of menstrual cycle: to prepare endometrium of uterus to receive fertilized ovum
describe the endometrium: vascularized to provide oxygen and nutrients to the embryo until the placenta develops
menstrual cycle is controlled by what? Hormones
When is the follicular phase? day 1-14
What happens during follicular phase? FSH causes follicles to resume meiosis
What divides under the influence of FSH? What do these do? Follicle (granulosa); mature cells release estrogen
What triggers vascularization of the endometrium? estrogen
How many follicles become mature graafian follicles? one
What is the "yellow body called"? corpus luteum
What hormone causes the graafian follicle to burst? progesterone (ovulation)
What marks the beginning of the luteal phase? the corpus luteum being left behind from the bursting of the graafian follicle
What two things does the corpus luteum secrete? large amounts of progesterone and small amounts of estrogen
T/F: during the luteal phase, more follicles develop: false, release of progesterone stops more FSH from being released
What happens hormonally if no fertilization occurs? the corpus luteum degenerates after 12 days, greatly reducing the volumes of estrogen and progesterone secreted by the ovaries
What happens to the corpus albicans if no fertilization occurs? it degenerates into scar tissue
What happens to the luteal phase if no fertilization occurs? it ends and menstruation begins
What is menstruation? Loss of the necrotic inner lining of the endometrium with some blood and serous fluid loss
What is necrosis? hormone loss and vasospasm
What hormone causes ovaries/ testis to release their stuff in the anterior pituitary? gonadotropin releasing hormone
What causes vasospasm of blood vessels during necrosis? decreasing of estrogen and progesterone due to corpus luteum turning into corpus albicans
What causes menstrual cramps? contraction due to prostoglandins
What causes blood to stop after 4-7 days? re-epithelialization of endometrium
Do women feel the egg burst? no, but some have some peristalsis reaction because of the blood left behind (blood where it shouldn't be)
what triggers necrosis (killing of blood vessels)? prostoglandins (responsible for cramps separatly)
What is the name of the squeezing/clamping down to remove the layer that needs to be removed? necrosis
When does necrosis start? as soon as the corpus albicans is in place
What layer is shed during menstruation? functionalis
The onset of what causes puberty to start? estrogen
Name of a first period? menarche
estrogen goes up by how much for menarche? 20%
What two major things happen during puberty? Gonadotrophic hormones cause ovaries to grow and the release of FSH and LH
AVG age range for starting period: 11-15
4 main changes that happen physically to females during puberty: Sexual Organs, Tissue Change, Bone, Fat
Type of Estrogen to be aware of: Estradiol
What is grown/developed due to estrogen? internal and external sexual organs
What happens to the vaginal epithelium during puberty due to estrogen? changes to simple cuboital to stratified squamous (resistant to abrasion and infection)
What happens to bones during puberty due to onset of estrogen? rapid growth and fusion at epiphyses to shafts
does testosterone have a strong effect on epiphyses to shaft conversion? NO
Where do females gain fat deposits during puberty? breast, butt, and thighs
What do androgens from the adrenal cortex cause the growth of? axillary and pubic hair
Menopause happens between what ages : 40-50
What happens during menopause? Ovarian (menstrual cycle) becomes irregular, sometimes failing to occur altogether Primordial follicles degenerate, despite presence of FSH + LH
Why does estrogen diminish during menopause? no follicle=no estrogen
What causes most menopausal changes ? lack of estrogen
2 major problems associated with menopause: osteoporosis (severe bone loss leads to decrease in bone mass and potentially fracture); coronary artery disease ( estrogens lower cholesterol- lack of causes cholesterol to increase)
Symptoms of menopause: Hot flashes, irritability, mental fog, fatigue, and anxiety
Is osteopenia normal? yes, simply lack of bone caused by the lack of estrogen
Is osteoporosis normal? no
Can coronary artery disease be normal part of the lack of estrogen? yes, but you can fight it
breasts are made of what? skin, adipose tissue, connective tissue, and mammary glands
Where is the connective tissue and adipose tissue? between lobules and ducts
What are mammary glands? clusters of alveoli that produce milk
what is a secretory lobule? cluster of mammary glands
What does a mammary duct do? drain the lobules
What is a mammary duct lined with? columnar epithelium
What does the lactiferous sinus do? drain the milk toward the lactiferous duct
What does the lactiferous duct do? opens independently in the nipple
Parts of a breast lobe: mammary gland, secretory lobule, mammary duct, lactiferous sinus, lactiferous duct
What is the job of suspensory ligaments? support the weight of breast tissue, form divisions between breast lobes
What pattern are suspensory ligaments arranged in? radial pattern like wheel spokes
What is orange peel breast? occurs in breast cancer patients, suspensory ligaments pucker up (Cooper's droopers)
What are pectoral muscles covered by? tough, fibrous sheath called deep fascia
Where is submammary space? Between base of breast tissue and deep fascia of P. major mm
What is submammary space made of? loose connective tissue
What do pectoral muscles allow for? Allows for a degree of movement over deep pectoral fascia
What is the areola? pigmented area surrounding nipple
What do both the areola and nipple contain? many sebaceous glands
What is the purpose of sebum? lubricates nipple during suckling
What color is the areola before pregnancy? after pregnancy? pink, darkens
What plays an important role in female sexual desire, arousal and satisfaction clitoral vascular engorgement
What percentage of women aged 18-44 experience sexual problems? 27.2
What percentage of women aged 44-64 experience sexual problems? 44.6
What percentage of women age 65 and older have sexual problems? 80.1
What causes sexual arousal? in smooth muscle relaxation and arterial vasodilation within the clitoris. The resultant increase in blood flow leads to tumescence of the glans clitoris and increased sexual arousal
Created by: smhoffman



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