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KIN 3600

midterm 2

Short duration – high intensity: springing 8-10 seconds ^ 25% ATP & 40% CP stores ^ duration - top speed stays same Enzymes: ^ ATPase 30%, MK 20%, CPK 36% ^ top speed increase
Short duration – high intensity: springing 20-60 seconds ^ glycogen ^ duration - top seed remains same Enzymes: Glycolytic = ^ PFK 83% ^ top speed increase
Endurance training – adaptations • ^ myoglobin 26% • ^ number 120% & size 40% of mitochondria • Enzymes: ^ TCA & ETC 40% • ^ glycogen storage 2.5x • ^ fatty acid utilization • Greatest ^ Type IIa & Type IIx
High resistance strength training – adaptations • ^ strength 28% • ^ CP concentration 5.1% • ^ Creatine concentration 35.2% • ^ ATP Concentration 17.8% • ^ Muscle Glycogen 32%
Why does ATP use increase with exercise? • As activity levels increase, breathing rateincreases to supply more oxygen for increased ATP production • As the work of the muscle increases, more and more ATP get consumed and must be replaced in order for the muscle to keep moving.
What does it mean for aerobic metabolism to meet ATP demand? • oxygen uptake correlates with increasing speed
what is aerobic metabolism? • the oxidative process of the generation of ATP or energy that occurs in the body to provide the body with fuel during both resting and exercise states.
Incremental phase (O2 Deficit) •Energy is mostly supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP, CP, and anaerobic glycogenolysis (lactate) • Utilization of storage oxygen o O2 in Capillary blood & interstitual fluid o O2 present in sarcoplasm with myoglobin o O2 present in mitochondria
what is O2 deficit Difference between oxygen demand and supply during exercise bout
Steady state phase (Plateau Phase) • Energy demand of the exercise is completely met by the aerobic phosphorylation. (O2 demand – O2 Supply)
EPOC (recovery phase) • Excessive Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption instead of “oxygen debt”
Factors responsible for “oxygen debt o resynthesize ATP & CP form ADP & Pi o replenish the O2 stores of the body o resynthesis of glycogen from lactic acid in liver (gluconeogenesis)
why EPOC is than bigger O2 deficit • Extra oxygen consumed by Heart, respiratory muscles, hormonal, Q10 effect
Difference in VO2 kinetics during a maximal (heavy) and light exercise • Higher (heavier) the intensity of the exercise the higher the oxygen deficit and EPOC – vice versa
Difference in training vs untrained who has bigger oxygen deficit and or EPOC and WHY... •Trained person will develop smaller O2 deficit and EPOC, due to faster response of aerobic energy transformation system ^ rate-limiting enzymes: Isocitrate, Cytochrome oxidase ^ TCA intermediary synthesis
Single stage single, supra-maximal workload. Warm up before testing.
Multiple stage Progressively incremental exercise testing (GXT). The warm up is built into the workout.
how do you test VO2 max? Single vs multiple stage
Modes • Cycle ergometer • Arm crank ergometer • Treadmill • Stair climb ergometer • Swimming flume • Rowing ergometer
What is VO2max • maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise; that is, exercise of increasing intensity. • "V" for volume, "O₂" for oxygen, and "max" for maximum
Relative Vo2 max better predictor aerobic fitness, health-related fitness, and endurance performance in weight–bearing sports and activities.
Absolute Vo2 max better predictor of performance in non-weight-bearing endurance sports and activities
Difference between relative and absolute VO2 max? Relative takes size into account and is measured in ml/kg/min and Absolute doesn't and is measured in L/min
How do we use this for an index of exercise intensity? • Objective expression of exercise intensity • Exercise intensity expressed relative to Vo2 max • Exercising Vo2= Vo2 max x intensity % / 100%
Who has higher Vo2max in different athletes or sex? athletic males
Muscle fiber types and Vo2max (%ST and max) • Slow Twitch (ST) muscle fibers are highly aerobic fibers
What is anaerobic threshold (OBLA • Power output or Vo2, during progressively incremental exercise, after which there is a systematic increase in blood lactate concentration.
Why does Dr. K like using OBLA Descriptive term without a why or how, just what happens
Why does he NOT like anaerobic threshold • Claims that it’s because anaerobic system as underlying mechanism
OBLA vs Ventilatory threshold •OBLA – increased exercise leads to increase blood lactate •Ventilatory- refers to the point during exercise at which the intensity level increases, breathing becomes faster; more steadily first and then more rapid as the intensity increases
When does OBLA happen
three ways lactate production increases -Hormonal stimulating of glycolysis b/c during fight or flight you release a lot of stress hormones that ^ ET -Blood being shunt away from liver and kidney. B/c function of gluconeogenic organs need that blood to bring lactate to them.
How does the removal of lactate become difficult
Where does vasodilation and constriction occur?
What is lactate turnover rate • Percentage of lactate leaving
What happens with endurance trained individuals vs untrained
Why is OBLA a better predictor for performance
How does training effect OBLA
Difference in healthy person compared to McArdle’s • McArdle's Metabolic myopathy caused by a deficiency in muscle glycogen phosphorylase
Direct Calorimetry The rate of energy expenditure may be measured by measuring the rate of heat liberated by the body during rest or during various physical activities
Indirect Calorimetry measurement of the amount of heat produced by a subject by determination of the amount of oxygen consumed and the amount of carbon dioxide eliminated.
What is the Atwater Rossa • Insulated heat chamber o No heat in or out • Mesh tubing • Person push out CO2 • Take out the CO2 of the chamber & push in O2 to make O2 constant
What is the respiratory exchange ratio CO2 expired : O2 consumed
What do we use R for • calculate relative contributions (%) of fats and carbohydrates to energy transfor mation and the amounts (grams) of fat and carbohydrates utilized. • Unknown R - 4.82 or 5 Kcal∙LO2-1
following ratio 1.0 • C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O R = 6CO2 / 6O2
following ratio 0.696 • C16H32O2 + 23O2 = 16CO2 + 16H2O R = 16CO2 / 23O2
following ratio 0.818 • C72H112N2O22S + 77O2 = 63CO2 + 38H2O + SO3 + 9CO(NH2)2 R = 63CO2 / 77O2
how to calculate R • R = Vco2 / Vo2
what is energy equivalent of Oxygen?
when do you use energy equivalent of Oxygen?
Basal metabolic rates (BMR) the rate of energy expenditure during absolute rest
Basal metabolic rates (BMR) test protocol •Absolute rest •12 hours pos-absorptive state •12 hours post-exercise •Overnight restful sleep •Dimly lit room •Room temperature 68 to 80º F •In semi-recumbent position at least 30 to 60 minutes before the measurements of the energy expenditure
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) test protocol • 2 hours post-pranidal • Sitting position
Factors Affecting BMR • Weight • Body Surface Area • Age & Gender • Fitness level • Body composition • Genetics • Metabolic disease (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism)
What is a Metabolic Equivalent? • 1 MET is the rate of resting energy expenditure or the rate of resting O2 consumption
When do we use a MET? • Used to express the rate of energy expenditure or exercise intensity of various physical activities as multiples of BMR
calculate energy expenditure from METS • Vo2 = weight kg × 1 MET (3.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) × Given MET
E.E. of O2 = 5.0 Kcal·L-1
Estimated rate of E.E = Vo2 answer × 5 Kcal·LO2-1
Actual Rate of E.E. = Given Resting VO2 × Given MET × 1 E.E. (5 Kcal·LO2-1)
Know how to calculate mechanical Efficiency • M.E.(gross) = Work output  Energy input  100 %
Energy input = given Vo2 × E.E. O2 (4.82 kcal·L-1
Energy output = Power Output x 60 sec·min-1 ÷ 1Kcal (4186.85 J·Kcal-1)
Net O2 consumption = given Vo2 – MBR in L
Net energy input = Net o2 consumption × E.E. O2 (4.82 kcal·L-1 )
M.E. (Net) = Energy output÷ Net energy input x 100 %
Three Main functions of nervous system • Sensory • Integratory • Motor
Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and Spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Afferent and Efferent neurons
SOMA (CELL BODY) proteins produced to build new dendrites
Dendrites transmit impulses towards the cell body
Axon transmit impulses away from cell body
Nucleus contains genetic material
Cytoplasm synthesis of proteins
Myelin protective covering that surrounds fibers called axons, the long thin projections that extend from the main body of a nerve cell or neuron
characteristics of neurons Neuron is electrically charged, polarized Excitability – ability to respond stimuli - altering its polarization. Conductivity–ability to transmit electrical impulses. B/c of these characteristics’ neurons can generate and conduct electrical impulses
Electrical & chemical gradients are responsible for what
influx of Na+ means what? Inside cell turns positive
Outflux of K+ means what? Exits the cell to try and keep electrochemical equilibrium
What are voltage regulated Na+ and K+ responsible for?
Na+/K+ pumps do what? . The process of moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrance is an active transport process involving the hydrolysis of ATP to provide the necessary energy
Relative refractory cell may be stimulated if stronger than normal stimulation will trigger a reaction
Absolute refractory - Time elapsed from beginning of stimulation during which another action potential cannot be generated in the cell regardless if stimulus strength.
What is the all or non-principle The size of A.P is independent of the stimulus intensity (strength). No matter the size of the stimulation the AP is ALWAYS be the same. Under stimulation, nothing happens.
When does AP actually occur? When it passes the simulation threshold
Eddie currents are responsible for what? heating tissue heating or peripheral nerve stimulation.
What does diameter and length do to the propagation velocity • The larger is the diameter of an axon the greater is the propagation velocity
Why is myelination important? • helps prevent the electric current from leaving the axon
What does Saltatory conduction do? Propagation of A.P. trough myelinated axons
What does it mean to be frequency coded? • the stronger is the stimulus intensity the higher is the frequency of action potentials propagated.
What is a synapse? • functional connections between neurons, between neurons and other cells – muscles and glands, or between muscle cells
the components of a synapse i. Presynaptic terminal ii. Motor end plate iii. Synaptic cleft iv. Basal Lamina v. Quanta
What is the motor end plate specialized chemical synapses formed at the sites where the terminal branches of the axon of a motor neuron contact a target muscle cell.
What do vesicles hold liquid
Quanta number of neurotransmitter vesicles released per Action Potential.
What is the basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits
Starting from AP reaching axon button, release of what neurotransmitter? How do we release this neurotransmitter? voltages which cause depolarization of skeletal muscle fibers caused by neurotransmitters binding to the postsynaptic membrane in the neuromuscular junction
What is the neurotransmitter responsible for activation of the muscle and what does it exactly do Acetylcholine is excitatory at the neuromuscular junction in skeletal muscle, causing the muscle to contract. When a nerve signal, reaches the end of the axon, the vesicles release a neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap.
How do we stop activation? • Acetylcholinesterase
Why is this Acetylcholinesterase important? • stops the signal between a nerve cell and a muscle cell.
What will occur if higher frequency of activation occurs? • The larger is the frequency of APs arriving to the presynaptic terminal, the higher is the frequency of neurotransmitter vesicle released in the synaptic cleft, the larger is the EPP
Nerve gas inactivates Acetylcholinesterase - Spastic Paralysis – post-synaptic blockade
Curare competitively binds to Ach receptors of Post synaptic membrane - Flaccid Paralysis – post-synaptic neuromuscular blockade
How are we graded at the end plate the larger is the amount of the transmitter released the larger is the size of the EPP)
How do we stop stimulation of end plate? Botulinum Toxin???
Characteristics of EPP • No overshoot and may go only up to 0 mv • EPPs are Graded • Conducted decrementally along the end plate • very long duration • no refractory periods
What are the four principals’ characteristics of muscle • Excitability, Contractility, Extensibility, Elasticity
Excitability ability to respond to stimuli
Contractility ability to contract and produce a force
Extensibility ability to be stretched without rupture
Elasticity ability to return to its original shape after shortening or extension
What does the connective tissue do for the structure and force • Structural support • Force transmission
What are the three connective tissue • Epimysium • Perimysium • Endomysium
Epimysium envelops individual muscles from outside providing structural integrity for the whole muscle
Perimysium envelops several hundred muscle fibers forming Fascicles
Endomysium envelopes each muscle fiber individually
What is the tendon and what does it do? • fusion of all three connective tissues together at the two distal end of the muscle forms tendons • capable of resisting high tensile forces while transmitting forces from muscle to bone
What is a muscle fiber? • Structural unit of the muscle • Multinucleated
Structure component of a muscle fiber? i. Sarcosol ii. Saroclemma iii. Sarcoplasm
Sarcosol aqueous solution containing electrolytes, glucose, aminoacids, peptides, proteins, enzymes, fat droplets, glycogen granules, ATP, & CP.
Saroclemma Phospholipid bilayer with imbedded proteins
Sarcoplasm Cytosol + organelles (nuclei, mitochondria, filaments, endoplasmic reticulum, etc.).
What are Myofibrils made of? • Thick (myosin) and thin (actin) myofilaments
How do these changes when contractions occur • I-bands progressively narrow and eventually disappear. • A-bands remain at the same length • H-zone progressively narrows, disappears, and then reappears as a darker zone becoming progressively wider
What is a sarcomere and why is it important? • a segment of a muscle fiber or myofibril located between two adjacent Z-disks.
What happened when sarcomeres are arranged in series vs parallel? • in-series (increased range and velocity of contraction) and in-parallel (increased force of contraction)
Why do sarcomeres have striations? • Under light microscope muscle fibers demonstrate alternating light (Isotropic) and dark (Anisotropic) regions called I-band and A-band
The sarcomeres has two myofilaments Thick and Thin filaments
What is the key function of T-tubules muscle contraction
Where are they in skeletal muscle vs cardiac sarcolemma
What is the Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) - is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
What are the dilated parts of Sarcoplasmic reticulum called? Triads
What is the SR mechanically coupled with? t-tubules
What is the mechanism for muscular contraction? • Sliding Filament Theory of Muscular Contraction
How does the sliding filament theory occur • the actin and myosin filaments within the sarcomeres of muscle fibers bind to create cross-bridges and slide past one another, creating a contraction.
Created by: rmart11



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