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Chapter 3

Cells

TermDefinition
Organelles specialized structures within the cytoplasm
Cell Interior surrounded by plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane Forms outer boundary of cell; composed of thin, two-layered membrane of phospholipids; embedded with proteins
Cytoplasm all cell substance from the nucleus to the plasma membrane
Cytoskeleton internal framework of cell
Ribosomes manufactures proteins and enzymes; made of two tiny subunits of mostly ribosomal RNA; may attach to rough ER of lie free in cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) network of connecting sacs and canals; carry substances through cytoplasm; rough ER collects, folds and transports proteins made by ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus [chemical processing center]; group of flattened sacs near nucleus
Mitochondria [power plant of the cell]; involved with energy-releasing chemical reactions
Lysosomes membrane-enclosed packets containing digestive enzymes; have protective function (eat microbes)
Centrioles paired organelles that lie at right angles to each other within the centrosome and function in moving chromosomes during cell reproduction
Microvilli short extensions of the plasma membrane that increase surface area and produce slight movements that enhance absorption by the cell
Cilia short extensions of the plasma membrane that increase surface area and produce slight movements that enhance absorption by the cell
Flagella single projections (much longer than cilia) that act as “tails” of sperm cells
Nucleus controls cell because it contains most of the genetic code; DNA molecules become tightly coiled chromosomes during cell division
Passive Transport do not require added energy and result in movement “down a concentration gradient”
Active Transport occur only in living cells; movement (Energy) of substances is “up the concentration gradient”; this requires energy from ATP
Osmosis diffusion of water (when some solutes cannot cross the membrane) (water going from one side to the other to even out)
Filtration diffusion of water (when some solutes cannot cross the membrane) (water going from one side to the other to even out)
Phagocytosis (“cell eating”)—engulfs large particles in a vesicle as a protective mechanism; destroys bacteria or debris from tissue damage
Pinocytosis (“cell drinking”)—engulfs fluids or dissolved substances into cells
Cell Division reproduction of cell involving division of the nucleus (mitosis) and the cytoplasm
Mitosis process in cell division that distributes identical chromosomes (DNA molecules) to each new cell formed when the original cell divides; enables cells to reproduce their own kind; makes heredity possible
Stages of Cell Division Prophase - Metaphase - Anaphase - Telophase
Prophase first stage
Metaphase second stage
Anaphase third stage
Telophase fourth stage
Epithelial Tissue Covers body and lines body cavities
Connective Tissue Most abundant and widely distributed tissue in body, with many different types, appearances, and functions
Areolar Tissue fibrous glue (fascia) that holds organs together; collagenous and elastic fibers, plus a variety of cell types
Adipose Tissue lipid storage, metabolism regulation; brown fat produces heat
Reticular Tissue delicate net of collagen fibers, as in bone marrow
Dense Fibrous Tissue bundles of strong collagen fibers; example is tendon
Bone Tissue matrix is calcified; functions as support and protection
Cartilage Tissue matrix is consistency of gristle-like gel; chondrocyte is cell type
Blood Tissue matrix is fluid; functions are transportation and protection
Skeletal Muscle Tissue attaches to bones; also called striated or voluntary; control is voluntary; striations apparent when viewed under a microscope
Cardiac Muscle Tissue also called striated involuntary; composes heart wall; ordinarily cannot control contractions
Smooth Muscle Tissue also called non striated (visceral) or involuntary; no cross striations; found in blood vessels and other tube-shaped organs
Nervous Tissue rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions
Created by: TheLifeOfMJ
 

 



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