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Chapter 2

Chemistry of Life

Nucleus central core of atom
Proton positively charged particle in nucleus
Neutron non-charged particle in nucleus
Atomic Number number of protons in the nucleus; determines type of atom
Atomic Mass number of protons and neutrons combined [protons+neutrons]
Energy Levels regions surrounding atomic nucleus that contain electrons
Electron negatively charged particle
Element a pure substance; made up of only one kind of atom
Molecule a group of atoms bound together in a group
Compound substances whose molecules have more than one kind of atom
Covalent Bonds when atoms share their outer energy to fill up and thus become stable
Examples of Inorganic Molecules water and some acids, bases, and salts
Water Essential to life
Dehydration Synthesis chemical reaction in which water is removed from small molecules and then strung together to form a larger molecule
Hydolysis chemical reaction in which water is added to the subunits of a large molecule to break it apart into smaller molecules
Acid substance that shifts the H+/OH- balance in favor of H+; opposite of base
Base substance that shifts the H+/OH- balance against H+; also known as an alkaline; opposite of acid
pH mathematical expression of relative H+ concentration in an aqueous solution
Neutralization acids and bases mix to form salts
Buffers chemical systems that absorb excess acids or bases and thus maintain a relatively stable pH
Body's Normal pH Level 7.35 - 7.45
Carbohydrates sugars and complex carbohydrates
Lipids fats and oils
Proteins Very large molecules made up of amino acids held together in long, folded chains by peptide bonds
Collagen a fibrous protein that holds many tissues together
Keratin forms tough, waterproof fibers in the outer layer of the skin
Catalysts help chemical reactions occur
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) a modified nucleotide used to transfer energy from nutrients to cellular processes, thus acting as an energy-transfer “battery"
Created by: TheLifeOfMJ