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Male Reproductive

Where does sperm start? Move to? End up? starts: outside the body Goes: inside the body Ends: back outside the body (before enters female)
Do we do asexual reproduction? no; only sexual
What are gametes? sex cells: sperm and ova
Were combining genes through what process? meiosis
What makes reproductive system unique? only system in the body that doesn't become fully functional until puberty
What are gonads? sex organs: testes and ovaries
2 primary organs of the reproductive system: gametes and gonads
secondary organs of male reproductive system: ducts, glands, and penis
Where do sperm and egg meet? fallopian tube
What is the difference between ovaries and testes? they're the same till testosterone hits then it's just location; they're both making things for reproductive function
What does scrotum mean? bag
What divides the interior into two sacks? scrotal septum
What does the scrotal septum divide? One testis, one epidymis, and the testicular end of the spermatic chord
What does the scrotal septum do for testis? prevent the spread of infection from one testis to another
Optimum sperm production happens at what temperature? 2-3 Degrees cooler than optimum body temperature
Muscles that lift the scrotum when it's cold: cremaster and dartos
What is Tunica the vaginalis? parietal and visceral layer with cavity
What is the Tunica albuginea? white fibrous capsule around testis
What are the lobules formed by? in folding of tunica albuginea
How many lobules in each testis? 200-300
What two things do the lobules contain? seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells
What is the analogy for testicles: each lobule is an apartment and it has a nursery called a seminiferous tubule that is busy making sperm; it also has a Leydig cell in the outside wall (electric unit) of the seminiferous tubule that feeds the baby/sperm testosterone (pushes through)
Where are sperm produced? seminiferous tubules
term for making sperm: spermatogenesis
How many coiled tubules in each lobule? 1-3
What allows sperm to exit? closed loops that open at the top
What happens to newly formed sperm? they are drained into the rete testis through a short straight tube
How many seminiferous tubules per testis? 400-600
What is the source of testosterone in males? Leydig cells
What is the formal name for testosterone? androgens
Where does spermatogenesis happen? the seminiferous tubules
Where are Leydig cells? in the walls of the seminiferous tubules
Where is the other source of testosterone? adrenal medulla
What week does testosterone increase/hit? 7th week
What are spermatozoa? sperm
What are spermatogonia? stem cells; germ cells that pass on genetic info to the next generation
Where are spermatogonia? basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules
What type of cells undergo meiosis? What happens during this process? spermatogonia; reducing # of chromosomes from 46 to 23 per cell
What (other than the number of chromosomes) does meiosis also ensure? that half the sperm will contain X, and half the sperm will contain Y
Order sperm development from spermatogonia to sperm: spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatids, sperm
What are the 2 pathways for testosterone? 1- through the walls of the seminiferous tubule (from Leydig cell in that wall) to feed the baby sperm 2- through the testicular vein to feed the rest of the body (where most of it goes)
What is the covering of the spermatic chord called? sheath
What 4 things are in the ductus deferens? Ductus (vas) deferens, Autonomic nerves, testicular artery, testicular vein (Vas def. + NAV complex)
What is the ductus vas deferens in the spermatic chord for? tranfering sperm towards the urethra
What are autonomic nerves in the spermatic chord for? peristalsis of sperm and sensation
What is the testicular artery in spermatic chord for? carry O2 and nutrients to the testes and epididymis
What is the plexus of testicular veins called? pampiniform plexus
What do the testicular veins do? carrying deoxygenated blood to IVC and transporting testosterone from Leydig cells to all body tissues
What is varicocele? failure of the valve for the testicular vein
What is varicocele also called? "bag of worms"
Leydig cells are also called what? interstitial cells
Spermatic chord is the way to get to the... testicle
Enlargement of the pampiniform plexus is called? varicocele
What is hypospadias? When the opening of the urethra doesn't close, has to be repaired
Difference between fallopian tube and spermatic chord: the spermatic chord has ductus deferens to transport sperm while the fallopian tubes are themselves the tube (both have NAV)
What is a highly effective form of male birth control? vasectomy
What happens during a vasectomy? Small section of ductus (vas) deferens removed from spermatic cord before it enters pelvic cavity
T/F: a man can not have kids right after a vasectomy- false, they can for about 3 months because there are sperm still in the bottom of the spermatic chord to be ejaculated
Is a vasectomy permanent? yes
Does a vasectomy increase or decrease testosterone? increase! more testosterone for the vein- to the body now
How many sperm are produced each day by the testes? 300 million?
What is in the head of the sperm? Nucleus, acrosome, and 23 chromosomes
What's in the acrosome? enzymes needed to pass through cervical mucous and break down the covering of the egg
What is contained in the body of sperm? packed with mitochondria for locomotive energy
Describe the tail of sperm: contractile filaments move in a whip like fashion
What is known as the Jr. Testes Rete testes
What is the function of Rete Testes? Collecting chambers for sperm (partially mature then head to Epididymis)
What happens in the Epididymis? tube that connects the testicle to the vas deferens; sperm mature 14 days (high school) here then can wait 40-60 to be either ejaculated or reabsorbed if not ejaculated
Where is the final stage of sperm maturation? What is the medical term for this? in the female- bc of the change in temp. ("early 20s"); capacitation
What is the tube which receives sperm from the Epididymis? ductus deferens
the ductus deferens is in the what? spermatic chord
where does the vas deferens end? behind the bladder
ductus deferens widens into a what where sperm collect right before ejaculation? ampulla
Why does the ductus deferens have a muscular wall? so you can use peristalsis to move the sperm during sexual arousal
what does vas deferens merge with? seminal vesicle duct (forming ejaculatory duct)
How are the Ejaculatory ducts formed? Formed by joining of ductus (vas) deferens and seminal vesicle
Just before ejaculation occurs, what do the ejaculatory ducts do? eject sperm and seminal vesicle secretions together into prostatic urethra
the urethra is a type of what? sphincter
2 sections of the urethra: prostatic and spongy or penile urethra
describe prostatic urethra:Seme section which passes through prostate gland
describe spongy (penile) urethra from bulb of penis to external urethral orifice at end of penis; surrounded by erectile tissue
Where are the seminal vesicles? base of the bladder (one for each of the ductus deferens)
Describe seminal vesicles: ejaculate thick, yellowish fluid; 60% of semen; contains fructose (energy source for sperm); contains clotting factor (think HONEY)
Why is there clotting factor in seminal vesicles? so that sperm stays in the vagina
Where is the prostate gland? encircles urethra and ejaculatory duct
What does the prostate gland secrete? thin milky fluid that is 30% of semen (contains citric acid)
What is bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland for? secretes mucous for lubricant during intercourse and neutralizes acid (urine would injure sperm)
What is benign prostatic Hyperplasia? BPH Prostate grows till 30, goes to sleep for 15 years, then starts growing again at age 45: this causes compression of urethra, difficult to pass urine, causes urinary retention
What happens at the prostatic urethra? both sperm and urine have to pass through to get out the door
What is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type in American men? prostate cancer
What is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death? prostate cancer
T/F: Prostate cancer has a high early detection rate and high survival rate: True
What causes prostate cancer? When the prostate cells are growing and one of the cells gets a mutation
Semen consists of what three things? seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral (cowper's glands)
What does each ejaculate contain? 2.5-5 mls of semen; 100 million sperm per mls
3 parts to the Penis: Root, body, glans penis
What part of the penis is the root? inmost part
What part of the penis is the body? shaft
What part of the penis is the glans penis? tip/head
Describe the body of the penis: it contains three cylinders of erectile tissue each surrounded by a fibrous sheath
5 columns of the body: corpora cavernosa (2 one on either side) and corpus spongiosum (middle)
What forms the glans penis? enlargement of the corpus spongiosum at the end
Where is the urethra? Runs through the corpus spongiosum
What happens to the penis during sexual arousal? these tissues fill with blood causing the penis to become erect
What is the opening at the end of the glans penis called? External urethral orifice
What part of the penis contains the foreskin? glans penis
Other than for religious reasons, why would the foreskin need to be removed? May be too tight or develop repeated infections and need surgical removal (circumcision)
What is Tumescence? Erection
Erectile tissue is made of what? corpora cavernosa, and corpus spongiosum
During arousal, what nervous system causes the sinuses to fill with blood? parasympathetic (increasing size and stiffness)
What happens to arteries and veins during arousal? Arteries dialate and veins (drainage) constrict
What is erection necessary for? vaginal pennetration
Annalogy for what nervous system allows what function? Point and Shoot: (Parasympathetic=erection Sympathetic= ejaculation)
What happens during Emission? sperm moves from testes to prostatic urethra
What happens during Ejaculation? sperm is ejected from prostatic and membranous urethras to penile urethra to outside
During sex, masturbation, or nocturnally can one or both erection and ejaculation occur? both
Until what age are testosterone levels high? 50
What causes early genital tissue to produce testosterone? Y chromosome
What causes testes to descend? fetal testosterone
What happens to men at age 50? andropause
What are the 2 hormones that both men and women have that are introduced during puberty? FSH and LH (follicle stimulating and luteinizing)
Primary sex characteristics: penis, testes, scrotum
Created by: smhoffman



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