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Digestive System

What is another name for the digestive system? Alimentary canal/gastrointestinal (GI tract)
What are the two primary functions of digestive tract? digestion and absorption of food
Cancer's that get to this system go straight to where? the bloodstream... the GI track is very thin and used for the exchange of things and is thus very dangerous when cancer gets in
Accessory structures of the GI track: teeth, GALLBLADDER, salivary glands, LIVER, and PANCREAS
What is the job of the GI track's accessory structures? produce secretions that aid in digestion (Ex: Saliva)
Why are accessory structures technically not "digestive" organs? because they also have other functions in other systems
What two organs are digestive and accessory? Liver and Pancreas
How can you avoid Hydrochloric acid in the digestive system? sublingual medication (Ex: migraine meds, nitroglycerine)
2 phases of digestion: mechanical(1) and chemical (2)
What is mechanical digestion? physically breaking food down- Ex: chewing, and peristalsis/churning in stomach
What is chemical digestion? ** food still not absorbed: digestive enzymes break particles apart into nutrients
4 steps to digestive process: 1)Ingestion 2)Digestion -Mechanical Digestion(chewing, churning, segmentation) -Propulsion (swallowing and peristalsis) -Chemical Digestion (saliva, acid and enzymes) 3)Absorption (lymph and blood vessels) 4)Elimination
List the 4 tunic layers from inner to outer: Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis Serosa
Name the three layers of the Mucosa: Epithelia, thin CT layer, thin muscle
Areas of mechanical force and abrasion are what kind of epithelium? Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Areas of nutrient absorption are made of what kind of epithelium? simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells
What kind of cells secrete mucous? goblet
What are squamous epithelium with cilia called? pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What happens when you don't have mucous in your stomach? ulcers (no lubrication- very dangerous, contents can come out)
What happens when you don't have mucous in your nose? nose bleed + no protection
Where do you absorb through? lymph and blood vessels
Describe submucosa: perfuse gut wall w/ blood; lymph nodules for immune function. Submucosal plexus of nerves*
Describe the two layers of the muscularis: longitudinal outer layer; circular inner layer
Muscularis contains what plexus? Myenteric plexus coordinates peristaltic contractions
Describe Serosa: visceral peritoneum that contacts parietal peritoneum
Why do you need two serosas? so your organs don't stick together
What is the function of the enteric nervous system? Regulates digestive tract motility (movement), secretion, and blood flow
Submucosal plexus is also called what? Plexus of Meissner
What is function of submucosal plexus of meissner? Regulates the activity of glands and smooth muscle because it faces the food-absorbing side of the intestines (the mucosa)
3 types of peritoneum: parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum, and peritoneum cavity
What does the parietal peritoneum do? lines the inner wall of the abdominal cavity: contains many pain receptors; folds form mesenteries
What does the visceral peritoneum do? covers the abdominal organs themselves
Where is the peritoneum cavity and what does it do? potential space between the two membranes; holds lubricating fluid
Why does the parietal peritoneum need to be folded? to increase surface area- stretching etc.
What is the Mesentery? Folds of peritoneum encasing the large and small intestines (intraperitoneal)
What does the Mesentery supply? Webbing, blood, lymph, and nerve support
What does the mesentery attach to the abdominal wall? most of small and large intestine
What two things does the mesocolon connect? duodenum and part of colon to posterior abdominal wall
Enteric means what? guts
3 problems with peritoneum: Adhesions, peritonitis, ascites
Which problem with the peritoneum is life threatening? peritonitis
What happens when a patient has peritonitis? parietal serosa is on organ wall- makes fluid; on inside of organ is visceral membrane- also makes fluid; both slippery so don't stick to one another... when injured/punctured, these two organs overproduce fluid in an attempt to wash infection out
Example of peritonitis: PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome)- female of reproductive age who has big belly and been diagnosed with PCOS; consider peritonitis
what is ascites? fluid in the abdomen
Adhesions can be caused by what two main things? Endometriosis; surgery (when you cut one thing, it stresses the nerves of another)
Which structure goes from the greater curvature of the stomach, covers the intestines like an apron, dips within their folds, and attaches to transverse colon and mesocolon? Greater omentum
What is the job of the Greater Omentum? contains fat, prevents friction, and aids in the localization of infection (warmth, hospital- can put caution tape around something infected "quarantine")
What structure goes from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the transverse fissure of the liver? Lesser Omentum
Describe the mesentery: a big freezer bag that holds your intestines and is stapled to your spinal column- no blood/nutrients/oxygen/nerves; open it a bit and thread a NAV complex in... oh ya and it's vacuum packed (sucked to the intestines)
What does the mesocolon do? hold the colon in place above the intestines on the back of the wall
Explain the difference between intra and retroperitoneal: retroperitoneal is where you put the stuff in the back that's really important to protect: kidneys, most of pancreas, duodenum.
Where does digestion begin? the mouth
What forms the roof of the mouth? palate
What causes the sweet taste on a saltine? salivary amylase in the mouth breaks apart the carbohydrates into sugars and so your brain processes it as sweet.
What is the only skeletal muscle that doesn't have an insertion? tongue
Which oral structure repositions food during chewing? tongue
which oral structure is covered by a mucous membrane? tongue
which oral structure anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth? lingual frenulum
which oral structure is the ideal site for drug absorption? lingual frenulum
which oral structure contains a large number of superficial blood vessels lingual frenulum
which oral structure is formed by the maxilla and palatine bones and forms a barrier between oral and nasal cavities? Hard palate
what is the arch of muscle between the mouth and nasopharynx called? soft palate
What oral structure is a cone shaped process hanging from the soft palate called? uvula
Only free floating bone in the body- Hyoid (held down by muscles that help you swallow)@ bottom of palatine muscles
3 functions of Saliva: (1) cleans mouth, (2) moisten and dissolve food, and (3) contains food-dissolving + anti-bacterial enzymes
3 glands that produce Saliva: Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular
What is 97-99.5% of Saliva made out of? WATER
What are the four other dissolved components of Saliva? Lysozyme, Mucin, Salivary Amylase/lipase
What is the fat breaking enzyme made by the tongue (but activated in the stomach)? Lingual lipase
What is a mass of food that is easy to swallow? Bolus
Which gland is anterior to the ear? Parotid gland
What is the area/site of inflammation due to mumps virus? Parotid gland
Another name for mumps? Paramyxovirus
Which gland empties into the mouth on either side of the frennulum? submandibular gland
Which gland drains through ducts on the floor of the mouth? sublingual gland
3 Salivary glands: Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual
What is the name for your teeth that are your sharp front teeth for biting into food: Incisors
What is the name for your teeth that flank the incisors and have a pointed edge (cusp) to tear up food; piercing tough or fleshy foods: Cuspids or Canines
What is the name for your teeth that have overall flatter shape with two rounded cusps useful for mashing foods: Premolars or Bicuspids
What is the name for your teeth that have several pointed cusps used to crush food: molars
Where is the root of a tooth? embedded in the alveolar sockets of the mandible
What comes out of the root? NAV complex
What does the pulp cavity contain? mass of blood, nerves, and CT
What does the root canal contain? pulp
What happens in a root canal? kill nerve + take away the pain through removal of all contents of pulp
What surrounds the pulp? Dentin
What is Dentin? firm, yellow tissue; makes up the bulk of a tooth
What does Cementum cover? the dentin
What keeps teeth in place? periodontal ligament (you have to break it to get a tooth out)
Where is the crown of your tooth? the area above the gum line
At what do the root and crown meet? Neck
What is another name for your gums? Gingiva
What is the hardest substance in the human body? Enamel
Where is Enamel? on top of the crown
Where is your Pharynx? the area behind your nose and your mouth.
Where does the Pharynx end? Larynx/ voice box
_________ is how you get from your mouth to your stomach: esophagus
What manipulates food to the back of the oral cavity? tongue
Food moves through what two passages in order to get to the esophagus? oropharynx and laryngopharynx
What is the last type of pharynx not mentioned above? Nasopharynx
Describe the position of the Esophagus: Posterior to Trachea, penetrates Diaphragm, and enters Stomach
What prevents backflow in the Esophagus? Lower Esophageal Sphincter
What is GERD Gastro Esophogeal Reflux disease: lets stuff in the stomach bubble back up the Esophagus... Esophagus cells convert to stomach cells which is precancerous
What do glands in the wall of the Esophagus do? secrete mucous to lubricate food
What does Marijuana do to the LES? relax it which can be extremely dangerous
Steps to Peristalsis: bolus enters and triggers contraction; this propels food toward the stomach
the two types of muscle used during peristalsis: circle muscle on the back and long muscle that does the duck bill
What is the fancy medical term for chewing? Mastication
What is the fancy medical term for swallowing? deglutition
3 phases to swallowing the voluntary/buccal phase, the pharyngeal phase, and the esophageal phase.
Where are nutrients absorbed? the Intestines
proteins and small amounts of starch/fat are partially digested where? stomach
Where does most digestion take place? Intestine
Where is alcohol absorbed? small intestine
rate of alcohol absorption depends on what? rate of stomach empties contents into the intestine; also depends on gender (thus eating before drinking slows the absorption of alcohol)
In the stomach, food is churned into what substance? chyme
4 main parts to the stomach: Cardia, Fundus, Body, and Pylorus
Folds in the stomach that increase surface area are called what? Rugae
2 curves of the stomach are called what? greater curvature and lesser curvature
Sphincter of the stomach: Pyloric sphincter
What are Gastric pits? Depressions in Mucosa where glands secrete gastric juice
4 cells of the Gastric Mucosa: Mucous-neck, parietal, chief, and enteroendocrine
What is the one stomach function necessary to life? production of intrinsic factor(necessary for production of RBCs and normal neurological functioning)
What type of stomach cell secretes mucous? mucous neck
Why do we need mucous in the stomach? to protect lining and prevent autodigestion
Which type of stomach cell secretes HCL (hydrochloric acid)? Parietal cells
What does HCL do? kills microbes
Which stomach cell type secretes intrinsic factor? Parietal
What vitamin does intrinsic factor allow you to absorb? B12
Which stomach cell type secretes pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme precursor? chief (Chief pepsi)
What is pepsinogen in its activated form? Pepsin (used to digest proteins)
enteroendocrine means what? gut hormone
What do enteroendocrine cells do? NS says hey we ate something (stretching), and Enteroendocrine cells say hey parietal cells, secrete some HCL
What is Gastrin secreted by? G cells
What does Gastrin do? Cause gastric glands to increase secretory activity (hydrochloric acid)
What does Cholecystokinin (CCK) do? increases action of secretin in the liver as well as pancreas to increase bile and pancreas "juice"
What does Somatostatin do? inhibits gastric secretion of all products and inhibits gastric motility and emptying
Draw Parietal cell; include these parts: H+, CO3-, Cl-, K+, leak channel, pumps, lumen, capillary, basilar surface interstitium, apical surface, draw 3 receptors
What is H2CO3? Carbonic acid
What is Carbonic Acid? Buffer
What is dissociation? When something (like carbonic acid) falls apart
What does H2 CO3 fall apart into? H+ and CO3
What three things are used in the parietal cell's pump? ATPase, H+, K+ (H+ pumped out and K+ pumped in)
What facilitates the forming of Carbonic acid? CA or carbonic anhydrase
Every time a Bicarbonate (HCO3) goes where and it causes what to go where? bicarb goes into the blood and Chloride comes into the cell
What is an antiporter? swap of bicarb and chloride
How does Chloride get out? leak channel
What other thing is trying to get out of the cell through leak channels? K+
How does you know to put out some HCL? NS- detects stretch; Endocrine System responds- hormone put out; that hormone tells parietal cell to put out HCL
What are the 3 receptors on a parietal cell for? Gastrin, Ach, and Histamine
What cells make histamine? Mast and Basil
What are the 2 types of Histamine receptors? H2 and H1 receptors
What type of Histamine receptor responds to allergies? H1
What type of Histamine receptor is found on the surface of Parietal cells? H2
What does Histamine do to the H2 receptor on a parietal cell? causes increase in HCL release by increasing the gastrin and Ach secretion
What is the big hormone that tells everybody else to tell everybody else to increase HCL? HISTAMINE
Where does HCL come from? H2O + CO2 which leads to carbonic acid dissociation***
Which endocrine cell/secretion causes gastric glands to increase secretory activity (hydrochloric acid); secreted by G-cells? Gastrin
Which endocrine cell/secretion increases action of secretin on liver as well as pancreas to increase bile and pancreas "juice"? Cholecystokinin
Which endocrine cell/secretion inhibits gastric secretion of all products and inhibits gastric motility and emptying? Somatostatin
List the types of gastric cells living in a gastric gland at the bottom of a gastric pit: Surface Mucous, Mucous neck, Parietal, Chief, Enteroendocrine
How to remember the order of the small intestine: DJI
What does DJI stand for? Duodenum, Jejunum, Ilium
3 phases of stomach secretion: Cephalic, Gastric, intestinal (C.G.I.)
Who controls the cephalic phase of stomach secretion (main part)? brain
During the Cephalic phase, the vagus nerve controls the secretions of what two products? HCL and Pepsin
During the Cephalic phase the PNS signals the secretion of what 2 products: Gastrin (+ gastric juice)
During the Gastric phase what vital thing happens? food enters the stomach
During the gastric phase, what triggers the release of gastric juice + gastrin? stretching
What happens during the intestinal phase? chyme moves into the duodenum which triggers a neural impulse that signals hormones to inhibit gastric secretion
Vomiting is also called what? Reverse Peristalsis
What sends the impulses to vomit? Emetic center of medulla oblongata
Where do the two signals that the emetic center sends go? One to upper esophageal sphincter to open One to esophagus and body of stomach to relax
Where does most nutrient absorption and chemical digestion take place? small intestine
How does food move through the small intestine? segmentation and peristalsis
What is the transition between the small and large intestine called? Ileocecal sphincter
Where do more digestive processes happen than anywhere else in the GI tract? duodenum
Where does the duodenum begin? pyloric valve of stomach
Why would you get an ulcer in the duodenum? right next to stomach- HCL + pancreas not putting out bicarb to nullify the acid
What does duodenum receive from the gall bladder? bile
Where is stomach HCL neutralized and pancreatic enzymes begin digestion? duodenum
Hormone of the duodenum: Secretin
What does Secretin do? Regulate water homeostasis
Where does secretin come from? Pancreas
What does secretin do? sends the food has arrived, send out the stuff!
What is secretin made by? S cells of the duodenum
3 main jobs of secretin: 1- stimmulates bicarbonate from pancreas 2-stimmulates bile from liver 3- inhibits HCL secretion by parietal cells
What does bile do? emulsifies dietary fats in the duodenum so that pancreatic lipase can act upon them
What is secretin inhibited by? H2 antagonists
What are plicae? circular folds/ "pleats" on the jejunum
Why does the jejunum have circular folds? increase surface area
What are villi? projections on the plicae
What are microvilli? form the brush border (nutrient absorption)
What color is the jejunum? why? red- blood behind it bc have to absorb things from the food
Describe Peyer's patches type of MALT/ tonsil of the intestine * part of Ilieum
Describe segmentation: cutting the food up with ring like contractions (relax, contract, mix with digestive juices... repeat)
Describe peristalsis: successive waves ripple along moving food out in form of waste (says alright you're done let's go to large intestine)
What type of cells are involved in peristalsis? pacesster cells
What 5 things make up the intestinal lining? villi, microvilli, circular folds, lacteal, Intestinal crypts
What are pores at bases of villi; goblet cells secrete mucus? intestinal crypts
What is the site of cell regeneration? intestinal crypts
What are Lacteal? Lymph vessel in each villus that transports fats to heart to be pumped out***
What produce digestive enzymes and increase surface area? microvilli
Nutrients other than fats go through where? liver
Can you live without your liver? NO
What does the liver produce And secrete? Bile
What is the function of bile? it is a salt that emulsifies fats
What does the liver store and release? Glucose
What does the liver produce proteins for? blood coagulation
What 4 things does the liver store? Carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and iron
What is a major function of the liver? detoxifies poisons (less toxic/ easier to eliminate)
What is the signal from the pancreas to the liver that says "she's not eating anything; release some sugars so she doesn't faint" glucagon (in opposition to insulin)
Explain the ADEK vitamins and the importance of liver function in their absorption. They're steroids- made of lipids- lipid soluble and thus go through membranes; thus it is very important to have a place to store these.... Also make sure that patients aren't taking these as supplement
The liver is on what side of the body? Right
Which ligament divide the two main lobes of the liver? falciform
If a person is laying on their back, where is the gall bladder? in the front, slightly to the right
4 lobes of the liver left, right, caudate (in back in from perspective of GB in the front), quadrate
What artery brings the liver oxygenated blood from the Aorta? Hepatic artery
What vein brings deoxygenated blood from the digestive system to the liver for cleaning before it can go to the heart(get nutrients out and add coagulants)? Hepatic portal vein
After blood from the hepatic portal vein has been cleaned, it travels through what vein to the heart? Hepatic vein (vein for post cleaning)
The lobes of the liver are made of what? lobules
Describe a lobule: drain in the center (central vein/CV) for stuff that has been cleaned; hepatocytes to do the cleaning; arteriole, venule, and bile duct for bile made by the liver to go to Gall bladder on the outside
Where does the arteriole come off of? hepatic artery
Where does the venule come from? hepatic portal vein
What is the term for the three pieces outside of a hepatic lobule? Hepatic portal triad
3 components of the hepatic portal triad arteriole, venule, and bile duct
What is a hepatic cellular plate? wall of cinderblock apartments and each apartment has a hepatocyte in the middle; looks like tall stack
What is the balcony/ sinusoid? each hepatocyte faces a sinusoid/ yard where they can reach out and grab nutrients + O2 from and pull them inside
Describe the structure of hepatocytes: contains many rooms: one for carbs, one for proteins, one for fats, one for iron, and one for coagulants
Where does bile go? bile duct/canaliculus (small canal)
Who are the guard dogs of hepatocytes? What do they do? Kupffer cells; APCs- they phagocytize bacteria, debris, and dead RBCs
What are the "coffee filters" of the liver? What do they filter through? sinusoids; nutrients, toxins, drugs, and hormones removed; clotting factors added
Where does bile emulsify fat droplets? small intestine
Where is bile stored until ready to be released into duodenum? gallbladder
Main components of bile: mainly water, with small amount of bile salts and bilirubin
Where does bile flow through to reach the duodenum? common bile duct
What is jaundice? back up of bile into tissues
liver secretes bile through what? left and right hepatic ducts
How does bile get to the gallbladder? cystic duct (overflow)
What hormone calls bile to come? CCK- Cholecystokinin
What controls bile from the common bile duct as it merges with pancreatic duct? Ampulla of vater
What controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum? sphincter of oddi
what is the pancreas's endocrine function? Islet of Langerhans (A and B cells/ glucagon and insulin)
What is the pancreas's exocrine function? Pancreatic juice (digestive enzymes)
What type of cells secrete pancreatic juice? acinar cells
What and by whom is HCL secreted to neutralize HCL? epithelial cells secrete bicarbonate to neutralize HCL
3 types of sugars: poly-, di-, and monosaccharides
In the small intestine, chyme mixes with what to digest starches? pancreatic amylase
what happens during contact digestion? Villi level of intestines, chyme sloshes against brush border so enzymes in microvilli can bind to sugars
final step to chemical digestion: glucose which is immediately absorbed
to digest proteins, what must happen? break apart amino acids peptide bonds
What hydrolyzes some of the peptide bonds? Pepsin in the stomach
when is pepsin inactivated? when chyme reaches duodenum
What does the pancreas release to resume bond breaking? think trypsin and chymotrypsin are the two friends of Rapunzel and Flynn rider and they carry around frying PANs (creas), and they break apart all the tough guys(proteins) at the snuggly duckling and break the proteins/guys barriers
What are peptidases? enzymes at microvilli level that break remaining amino acid chains
What is the main fat busting enzyme? Pancreatic lipase
What does emulsified mean? broken down- term used describe a necessity for fats
Where does Pancreatic lipase work? duodenum
What are the two products that pancreatic lipase produces? fatty acids and glycerol
Where does the short chain of fatty acids go? absorbed directly into brush border
Long chain of fatty acids and monoglycerides are converted into what? triglycerides
Where then do triglycerides go? lacteal of villi and travel in lymph system to blood
Where is the last call for water? large intestine
What hormone has to do with water regulation? Secretin
What happens at the small intestine (mainly): Water absorbed, and feces left behind
What phase of mitosis does cytokinesis (cell breaking) occur? telephase
What is pmat? prophase metaphase anaphase telephase
What two filaments work for muscle contraction? actin and myocin
How is food moved along in the large intestine? smooth muscle contracts at bands causing food to move along
How often is this mass movement occurring? every 30 minutes
What are haustra? pouches along large intestine where smooth muscle increases
What does the liver do with vitamin K? make coagulants; required for liver for synthesizing clotting factors
What 3 vitamins are made in the liver? Vitamin K, Biotin, and B5
Is vitamin K fat or water soluble? fat
Is Biotin fat or water soluble? water
Is vitamin B5 fat or water soluble? water
What is Biotin important for? Glucose metabolism
What is vitamin B5 important for? manufacture of steroid hormones and some neurotransmitters
Describe the order of the large intestine: Iliocecal valve with cecum (blind pouch), appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal which opens to the anus
Which anal sphincter is involuntary? Internal
Which anal sphincter is voluntary? external
Created by: smhoffman



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