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Anatomy LE and Neck

muscles of the lower extremity and neck

QuestionAnswer
Origin of Psoas Major bodies of lumbar vertebrae, transverse processes, and IV disks of T12-L5
Insertion of Psoas Major lesser trochanter of femur
Action of Psoas Major flexion at hip (with iliacus, flexes trunk to sitting from supine), weak lateral rotator at hip
Innervation of Psoas Major L2-3
Origin of Iliacus upper 2/3 of iliac fossa, ala of ilium, AIIS
Insertion of Iliacus lesser trochanter of femur
Action of Iliacus flexion at hip (with Psoas Major flexes trunk to sitting from supine), weak lateral rotator at hip
Innervation of Iliacus femoral nerve
Origin of Sartorius ASIS
Insertion of Sartorius upper medial tibial shaft
Action of Sartorius sygergist to: abduction, flexion, and lateral rotation at hip; flexion and medial rotation at knee (sitting cross legged)
Innervation of Sartorius femoral nerve
Insertion of Quadriceps Femoris Group patella via patellar tendon, then the tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Action of Quadricepts Femoris Group extention at knee (rectus femoris also assists in flexion at hip)
Innervation of Quadriceps Femoris Group femoral nerve
Origin of Rectus Femoris long head: AIIS; short head: ilium above acetabulum
Origin of Vastus Medialis medial lip of linea aspera, medial intermuscular septum of adductors magnus and longus, intertrochanteric line
Origina of Vastus Lateralis lateral lip of linea aspera, intertrochanteric line, inferior border of greater trochanter, gluteal tuberosity
Origin of Vastus Intermedius linea aspera, lateral intermuscular septum, anterior and lateral 2/3 of femoral shaft
Origin of Pectineus pectineal line of pubic
Insertion of Pectineus pectineal line of femur
Action of Pectineus flexion and adduction at hip
Innervation of Pectineus femoral (and sometimes obturator) nerves
Origin of Gracilis inferior pubic ramus
Insertion of Gracilis upper medial tibial shaft
Action of Gracilis adduction at hip; synergist to medial rotation and flexion at knee
Innervation of Gracilis obturator nerve
Action of Adductor Group adduction at hip (brevis and longus also assit in flexion and medial rotation at hip)
Innervation of Adductor Group obturator nerve
Origin of Adductor Brevis outer surface of inferior pubic ramus
Insertion of Adductor Brevis posterior femoral shaft below lesser trochanter, proximal part of linea aspera
Origin of Adductor Longus anterior body of pubis
Insertion of Adductor Longus medial lip of linea aspera, middle posterior femoral shaft
Origin of Adductor Magnus inferior pubic ramus, lower part of ishial tuberosity
Insertion of Adductor Magnus linea aspera, adductor tubercle of femur
Origin of Tensor Fascia Latae outer edge of iliac crest (ASIS to iliac tubercle)
Insertion of Tensor Fascia Latae iliotibial tract
Action of Tensor Fascia Latae tightens and stabilizes iliotibial tract; tenses the fascia latae which compacts all muscles of thigh, increasing muscle stregth and tension which is vital for standing
Innervation of Tensor Fascia Latae superior gluteal nerve
Origin of Hamstring Group ischial tuberosity (except short head of biceps femoris is linea aspera and lateral intermuscular septum)
Action of Hamstring Group flexion at knee (semis and long head of biceps are also synergists to extention at hip and medial rotation at knee)
Innervation of Hamstring Group tibial nerve (except short head of biceps is common peroneal nerve)
Insertion of Semitendinosis upper medial tibial shaft
Insertion of Semimembranosis posterior of medial condyle of tibia
Insertion of Biceps Femoris lateral fibular head, lateral condyle of tibia
Origin of Piriformis internal surface of sacrum
Insertion of Piriformis superior border of greater trochanter
Action of Piriformis primary lateral rotator at hip, keeps hip in alignment with pelvis; sygergist to abduction at hip
Innervation of Piriformis anterior rami of S1-2
Origin of Quadratus Femoris lateral border of ishial tuberosity
Insertion of Quadratus Femoris inferior to intertrochanteric crest
Action of Quadratus Femoris synergist to lateral rotation at hip
Innervation of Quadratus Femoris L5-S1
Origin of Gluteus Maximus thoracolumbar fascia, ilium, sacrum, coccyx
Insertion of Gluteus Maximus iliotibial tract, gluteal tuberosity of femur
Action of Gluteus Maximus primary extender at hip; synergist to abduction, adduction, and lateral rotation at hip
Innervation of Gluteus Maximus inferior gluteal nerve
Origin of Gluteus Medius outer surface of ilium inferior to iliac crest
Insertion of Gluteus Medius lateral surface of greater trochanter
Action of Gluteus Medius primary abductor at hip; syngergist to medial rotation at hip (also helps keep pelvis in alignment--passive action more important than primary action)
Innervation of Gluteus Medius superior gluteal nerve
Origin of Gluteus Minimus outer surface of ilium between middle and inferior gluteal lines
Insertion of Gluteus Minimus anterior surface of greater trochanter
Action of Gluteus Minimus synergist to abduction and medial rotation at hip (also helps keep pelvis in alignment--passive action more important than primary action)
Innervation of Gluteus Minimus superior gluteal nerve
lateral border of femoral triangle sartorius muscle
supeior border of femoral triangle inguinal ligament
medial border of femoral triangle adductor longus muscle
surrounds the femoral triangle fascia latea
inside femoral triangle femoral nerve, femoral artery, femoral vein, and femoral canal (full of fat and lympth nodes)
purpose of fat in femoral canal allows "give" so taht vessels can expand and not cause damage
femoral vein can be used for bypass surgery remove part of femoral vein and insert it in affected area to form a bridge around the blockage
significance of femoral artery and vein in femoral triangle angioplasty and angiography (artery and vein are clinically significant to get to the left and right sides of the heart via tubes inserted into the femoral triangle) to remove blockages or to see what the problem is
herniated disk can damage which muscle of the LE? psoas major can be damaged by a herniated disk
problems associated with inguinal canal in males and females males: inguinal hernia; females: femoral hernia
inguinal ligament boundary for pelvis and thigh (above is pelvis, below is part of the LE)
sacrotuberous ligament makes the greater sciatic notch the sciatic foramen (closes it off)
Iliohypogastric/Ilioinguinal Nerve Block anesthesia injected between ASIS and iliac crest, 4-6 cm posterior to ASIS along lateral aspect of external lip of crest (peirces transversus abdominus muscle), good for appendicitis surgery
Transsacral Epidural injection through sacral hiatus or in sacral foramina through center of sacro iliac joints (between dimples on back), blocks upper sacral and lower lumbar nerves, good for vaginal births
Lumbar Puncture inject anesthetic into space between 2 apexes of iliac crests, good for spinal tap (draw out CSF) and lumbar epidural (for c-sections), deadens all lumbar and some lower thoracic nerves
Intragluteal Injections to block sciatic nerve a few cm inferior to midpoint of line joining the PSIS and the superior border of greater trochanter on same side
General Intragluteal Injections rest hand on region of greater trochanter so index finger is on ASIS and 3rd digit spreads posteriorly along iliac crest near apex, inject into the glut. med./TFL in the triangle formed with fingers without endangering the sciatic nerve
Superior Gluteal Nerve Damage (caused by gunshot wound to buttocks) affects gluteus med and min and TFL, results in weakened abduction and medial rotation at thigh, pelvis is out of alignment, "waddling gait", will lean toward weakened side
Sciatic Nerve Damage (caused by gunshot wound to medial glut. max. near intergluteal line or hypertrophy of piriformis) affects dorsiflexors, plantarflexors, everters, and inverters at ankle, extensors and flexors of toes, and hamstring group; results in no flexion at knee
Biceps Femoris Injury (nerve damage in posterior thigh or buttocks) can affect only tibial or only common peroneal depending on which head is injured, affects biceps and distal muscles innervated by that nerve, may result in impaired knee flexion
Injury to Tibial Nerve in Popliteal Fossa (caused by posterior dislocation of knee joint, tibia moves posteriorly, PCL rupture--knee flexed, hit on tibial tuberosity) affects plantarflexors, inverters, and toe flexors,
Common Peroneal (Fibular) Nerve Injury (caused by fracture of fibular neck or knee joint dislocation/swelling) affects everters, dorsiflexors, and toe extensors; results in "drop foot"--foot is plantarflexed and inverted and toes are flexed, no heel strike, toes drag or hear "clop"
Deep Fibular/Peroneal Entrapment (caused by compression of inferior extensor retinaculum when wearing tight shoes) causes pain and temporary paralysis of muscles in dorsum of foot
ACL Rupture (caused during a sudden twisting motion when feet stay planted but knees move in opposite direction) tibia moves anteriorly
PCL Rupture (caused when knee flexed and hit on tibial tuberosity) tibia moved posteriorly
Medial (and Lateral) Collateral Ligament Rupture (caused by a blow to outer knee, may occur in conjunction with PCL rupture)
Femoral Nerve Damage affects flexors at hip (iliopsoas, pectineus, sartorius) and extensors at knee (vastus medialis, lateralis, intermedius, and rectus femoris) and skin of anterior and lateral thigh and medial leg and foot; no bending at wasit and no extension at knee
Obturator Nerve Damage affects thigh adductors, skin of superior medial thigh; no adduction at hip, difficulty with laterally rotating at hip
Origin of Gastrocnemius lateral and medial condyles of femur (or lateral condyle of femur and popliteal surface of femur above medial condyle)
Insertion of Gastrocnemius tendocancaneous
Action of Gastrocnemius plantarflexion (the power behind it), synergist to knee flexion
Innervation of Gastrocnemius tibial nerve
Origin of Soleus soleal line on tibia (or posterior tibial shaft and upper 1/3 of posterioir fibular shaft)
Insertion of Soleus tendocalcaneus
Action of Soleus plantarflexion (the endurance behind it) (primary planarflexor)
Innervation of Soleus tibial nerve
Origin of Popliteus lateral condyle of femur
Insertion of Popliteus medial condyle of tibia
Action of Popliteus very slight medial rotator at knee, synergist to knee flexion (allows for "locking" of knee)
Innervation of Popliteus tibial nerve
Origin of Flexor Hallicis Longus lower 2/3 of posterior fibular shaft, interosseous membrane
Insertion of Flexor Hallicis Longus plantar surface of base of distal phalanx of great toe
Action of Flexor Hallicis Longus flexion of distal phalanx of great toe, synergist to plantarflexion and inversion
Innervation of Flexor Hallicis Longus tibial nerve
Origin of Flexor Digitorum Longus medial posterior tibial shaft
Insertion of Flexor Digitorum Longus plantar surface of bases of distal phelanges of toes 2-5
Action of Flexor Digitorum Longus flexes distal phelanges of toes 2-5, synergist to plantarflexion and inversion
Innervation of Flexor Digitorum Longus tibial nerve
Origin of Tibialis Posterior lateral posterior tibial shaft, upper 1/2 of posterior fibular shaft, interosseous membrane
Insertion of Tibialis Posterior all tarsals except talus, bases of metatarsals 2-4
Action of Tibialis Posterior synergist to plantarflexion and inversion
Innervation of Tibialis Posterior tibial nerve
Origin of Peroneous Longus fibular head, upper 2/3 of lateral fibular shaft
Insertion of Peroneous Longus dives under foot to plantar side and inserts on lateral side of medial cuneiform and lateral side of base of 1st metatarsal
Action of Peroneous Longus primary everter, synergist to plantarflexion
Innervation of Peroneous Longus and Peroneous Brevis superficial peroneal nerve
Origin of Peroneous Brevis lower 2/3 of lateral fibular shaft
Insertion of Peroneous Brevis lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal
Action of Peroneous Brevis synergist to eversion, weak synergist to plantarflexion
Origin of Tibialis Anterior lateral condyle of tibia, upper 1/2 of lateral tibial shaft, interosseous membrane
Insertion of Tibialis Anterior medial side of medial cuneiform, medial side of base of 1st metatarsal
Action of Tibialis Anterior inversion and dorsiflexion (direct antagonist to peroneous longus)
Innervation of Tibialis Anterior deep peroneal nerve
Origin of Extensor Digitorum Longus lateral condyle of tibia, upper 2/3 of anterior fibular shaft, interosseous membrane
Insertion of Extensor Digitorum Longus dorsal surface of toes 2-5, bases of middle and distal phelanges of toes 2-5
Action of Extensor Digitorum Longus extension of toes 2-5, synergist to dorsiflexion and eversion
Innervation of Extensor Digitorum Longus deep peroneal nerve
Origin of Extensor Hallicis Longus middle 1/2 of anterior fibular shaft, interosseous membrane
Insertion of Extensor Hallicis Longus base of distal phalanx of great toe
Action of Extensor Hallicis Longus extends distal phalanx of great toe, synergist to dorsiflexion and inversion
Innervation of Extensor Hallicis Longus deep peroneal nerve
Origin of Flexor Digitorum Brevis tuberosity of calcaneous, plantar aponeurosis
Insertion of Flexor Digitorum Brevis sides of middle phelanges of toes 2-5
Action of Flexor Digitorum Brevis synergist to flexor digitorum longus (synergist to flexion of proximal phelanges of toes 2-5, synergist to extension of distal phelanges of toes 2-5)
Innervation of Flexor Digitorum Brevis medial plantar nerve (branch of tibial)
Origin of Flexor Hallicis Brevis lateral cuneiform, cuboid
Insertion of Flexor Hallicis Brevis plantar surface of base of proximal phalanx of great toe
Action of Flexor Hallicis Brevis synergist to flexion of great toe
Innervation of Flexor Hallicis Brevis medial plantar nerve (branch of tibial)
Origin of Abductor Hallicis tuberosity of calcaneous, flexor retinaculum, and plantar aponeurosis
Insertion of Abductor Hallicis medial side of proximal phalanx of great toe
Action of Abductor Hallicis abduction of great toe
Innervation of Abductor Hallicis medial plantar nerve (branch of tibial)
Origin of Adductor Hallicis oblique head: metatarsals 2-4, peroneous longus tendon; transverse head: MP and transverse ligaments of toes 3-5
Insertion of Adductor Hallicis lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe
Action of Adductor Hallicis adducts great toe (stabilizes with abductor hallicis)
Innervation of Adductor Hallicis latearl plantar nerve (branch of tibial)
Origin of Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis base of 5th metatarsal, peroneous longus tendon
Insertion of Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis plantar surface of base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe
Action of Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis flexion of proximal phalanx of 5th toe
Innervation of Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis lateral plantar nerve (branch of tibial)
Origin of Abductor Digiti Minimi tuberosity of calcaneous, plantar aponeurosis
Insertion of Abductor Digiti Minimi lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe
Action of Abductor Digiti Minimi abduction of 5th toe
Origin of Quadratus Plantae medial surface of calcaneous, lateral surface of inferior calcaneous
Insertion of Quadratus Plantae lateral margin of flexor digitorum longus tendon
Action of Quadratus Plantae synergist to flexor digitorum longus, reinforces action of flexor digitorum longus
Innervation of Quadratus Plantae lateral plantar nerve (branch of tibial)
Innervation of Abductor Digiti Minimi lateral plantar nerve (branch of tibial)
Action of Platysma depresses lower jaw, lip, and angle of mouth; wrinkles skin of neck
Innervation of Platysma facial nerve
Action of Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) single: turns face toward opposite side; together: flexes head on neck
Innervation of Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve 11, like trapezius)
Action of Digastric elevates hyoid bone and tongue, depresses the mandible
Innervation of Digastric posterior belly: facial nerve; anterior belly: trigeminal nerve
Action of Mylohyoid elevates hyoid bone and tongue, depresses the mandible
Innervation of Mylohyoid trigeminal nerve (mylohyoid branch)
Action of Sternohyoid depresses hyoid and pharanx
Innervation of Sternohyoid ansa cervicalis
Action of Sternothyroid depersses thyroid cartilage and laranx
Innervation of Sternothyroid ansa cervicalis
Action of Thyrohyoid depresses and retracts hyoid and laranx
Innervation of Thyrohyoid C1 via hypoglossal nerve
Action of Omohyoid depresses and retracts hyoid and larynx
Innervation of Omohyoid ansa cervicalis
Action of Scalene Muscles elevate first rib, flex neck
Innervation of Scalene Muscles lower cervical nerves (C5-8)
Created by: jenumber5