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Immune System Part 3

2 types of adaptive (specific) defenses: Cell-mediated immunity and Humoral/Antibody-mediated immunity
What do adaptive defenses respond to? specific antigens
How do adaptive defenses respond? with coordinated responses of T and B cells
Cell mediated immunity responds to what kind of cells? T cells
Cell mediated immunity defends against what? abnormal cells or pathogens inside the cell
What does cell mediated immunity use for attack? perforin and granzymes
Who is the brother/sister of a Natural killer: Why? T cell; but, T cells make sure they're supposed to kill before attacking, but both use the same method
Antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity uses what kinds of cells b cells
Antibody-mediated immunity defends against what? pathogens (antigens) in the body fluids
What does antibody-mediated immunity use for attack? antibodies
What do T cells use to I.D. what to attack? Antigen presenting cells or antibodies
Are you born with T-cell immunity? NO
Antibody-mediated immunity is also known as what? humoral immunity
Humoral means what? blood/fluid
How does Antibody-mediated immunity work? like Instagram... send out a picture throughout the body using antibodies (picture) saying get this guy
Analogy for what antibodies are: GB on phone (you have an antibody for every pathogen you have ever encountered-they're very small)
Innate immunity is first present when? at birth
Adaptive immunity is first present when? after birth- your body responds as you're exposed to specific antigens; YOU CREATE your own ANTIBODIES
2 types of adaptive immunity: Active and Passive
How are antibodies brought about for Active adaptive immunity? after exposure to a specific antigen
2 types of active adaptive immunity: Naturally acquired adaptive immunity, Artificially induced adaptive immunity
How are antibodies brought about for Passive adaptive immunity? Antibodies are transferred from another source
2 types of passive adaptive immunity: Naturally acquired adaptive immunity, Artificially acquired adaptive immunity
Naturally acquired active immunity is a result of what? environmental exposure to pathogens
Artificially induced active immunity is what? vaccines containing attenuated pathogens
What is an attenuated pathogen? weakened pathogen- such a small amount that it can't get you sick
Where do the antibodies for naturally acquired passive immunity come from? mom
What is the main difference between passive and adaptive immunity: Passive is nicer, but it doesn't last as long
What is an example of artificially acquired passive immunity: Rabies shot (made of antibodies)
4 properties of adaptive (acquired) immunity: specificity, versatility, memory, and tolerance
What does specificity mean? -Each T or B cell responds only to a specific antigen and ignores all others -Shape and size of antigen determines which lymphocyte responds
What does versatility mean? any antigen, any time (the body produces thousands of types of lymphocytes and each lymphocyte population fights a different type of antigen- these lymphocytes then clone themselves & their clones are sensitive to that same antigen)
For the memory property of adaptive immunity, what two types of cells are produced when an antigen is encountered? active and inactive
When do the active group of memory cells attack the invader? Immediately
When does the inactive group of memory cells wake up? at the second time of exposure: then they ‘remember’ (memory) the antigen and strike with a faster, longer, more effective attack than the first time
Describe Tolerance: The immune system ignores its own antigens ("normal" or "self")
How do T/B cells work under tolerance? T/B cells are destroyed if they attack self antigens, the "navy seals" who make it are programed to attack only non self antigens only
What kind of cells creates antibodies? B cells
4 major types of T cells: cytotoxic, memory, helper, and suppressor
Cytotoxic cells are also known as what? Tc cells
Memory cells are also known as what? Th cells
Suppressor cells are also known as what? Ts cells
Cytotoxic cells are responsible for what? cell mediated immunity
How do cytotoxic T cells work? Enter tissues and directly attack antigens physically and chemically
How do memory T cells work? Produced and activated if pathogen occurs again later
How do helper T cells work? Stimulate responses of T cells and B cells, especially activate B cells
How do suppressor T cells work? Inhibit (stop) function of T cells and B cells when attack should end
What is necessary for a cytotoxic T cell to work? a helper T cell
How do helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells work together? helper T says here cytotoxic cell, kill that one; here B cell, make some antibodies; here mast cell, release some histamine
What protein is involved in the classical and alternative pathway? C3B (innate immunity)
CD markers are also known as what? cluster of differentiation markers ("Columbia shirts on everyone")
CD markers are associated with what type of immunity? adaptive
When is CD3 present? with ALL T cells
Analogy for CD3 markers: Everyone in A&P is going into different medical fields, but we all had to take this class.... CD is A&P "little badge saying I'm adaptive immune system and here to help you this way"
What are the two "profession choices" for CD3 markers (those who have taken A&P): CD4 and CD8
CD3 is a type of what? Receptor Complex
What do Cytotoxic T cells have? (CD3) + CD8
What do Cytotoxic T cells/ CD8s respond to? antigens on class 1 MHC proteins
What does 1 MHC stand for? Major Histo Compatibility Complex 1
CD8 HATE means what? CD8 cells are Cytotoxic cells... they hate on/ kill everything
CD4s are what kind of cells? call for help/ Helper T cells
Who do CD4s respond to? antigens on class 2 MHC complex proteins
T/F: both CD4 and CD8 cells bind to CD3 receptor complex? True
What is associated with class 2 major histo compatibility complexes? antibodies
What is a MHC? a bunch of proteins that are grouped together that can make different kinds of cells
T cells can not recognize an antigen unless what? unless it is bound to a glycoprotein in the plasma membrane of another cell and presented
MHC proteins are also known as what? Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs)
What do MHC proteins/ HLAs do? bind antigens for presentation to a T cell
What class are MHCs for Cytotoxic T cells? class 1
What class are MHCs for Helper T cells? class 2
Which class of MHCs are found in the membranes of all nucleated body cells? class 1
What class of MHCs are found in the membranes of APCs (antigen presenting cells aka phagocytes)? class 2
What cells are at risk for being attacked by a virus? ones that have DNA
What happens when cells are infected with viruses? they use their MHC 1 to put a pathogen on the outside that causes a CD8 to come and kill the cell
When a T cell responds it is called a what? activated cytotoxic T cell (CD8)
What causes organ donation rejection? T cells attacking the foreign cells
Class 2 MHCs are found only in the membranes of what? Antigen Presenting cells and Lymphocytes
Phagocytes are an example of what? Antigen Presenting cells
Who responds to class 2 MHC proteins? Helper T cells CD4
What do Lymphocytes turn into? T, B, and NK cells
For class 1 MHCs, the cell infected has get sick and die, how does the process for class 2 MHCs differentiate? For Class 2 MHCs (think macs), the cell doesn't have to get sick and die; it simply eats the bad guy, shows it to a helper T cell who goes and tells B cells to make antibodies, calls cytotoxic cells to kill it, and tells mast cells to cue immune response
What is the MHC 2 complex on a mac? what the MHC 2 is "wrapped" in
What is antigen processing? when an antigen presenting cell makes fragments of an antigen
Class 1 MHCs cause cytotoxic Ts to what? activate
Another name for a body cell somatic
MHC class 1 proteins respond to what? viral and bacterial infections
How do cells know that either itself, or its buddy is infected? appearance of abnormal peptides in the cytoplasm
What are abnormal peptide proteins incorporated into? MHC class 1 proteins
4 phagocytes: Macrophages (both fixed and free) Kupffer cells (macs of the liver) Microglia (macs of the CNS) Dendritic cells of skin, lymph nodes, and spleen
What are the two places class 2 MHC proteins are found? Antigen-Presenting cells (APCs), and B-cells
Are MHC 1 or MHC 2 proteins more intense? MHC 2 proteins- calling the helper T cell!
Examples of who can NOT make an MHC 1: Red blood cell (since can't do immune response on own, filtered through the spleen who decides who has to go...)
Why do patients who have received organs have to take immune suppression? to inhibit T cells because they will attack the foreign
T/F, phages cannot get infected? False, anyone who has a nucleus can...
The action of what organelle causes antigen fragmentation during MHC 2 protein response? lysosome
Steps to MHC 1 protein response: 1) perforin 2) release granzyme containing poisonous lymphotoxin 3) apotosis
Steps to MHC 2 protein response: 1) Helper T cell produces cytokines going to cytotoxic Ts and phages 2) Cytotoxic Ts kill the infected cell and phage eats it through phagocytosis 3) b cells make antibodies + memories
Do you want to make antibodies against everything? No, only against the things MHC 2 proteins tell you too.
what is a cytokine? inflammatory response proteins that CALL everyone (phone calls)
What is a cytokine storm? too much of a good thing (over secretion of cytokines)- inflammation (like when you get in the car and the music that sounded good when it was happening now hurts bad)
How does apoptosis work? cell death occurs through the activation of genes inside the cell's DNA
B cells are responsible for what? antibody mediated immunity
How do B cells attack antigens? by producing antigen specific antibodies
3 steps of antibody mediated immunity using B cells: 1) sensitization 2) activation 3) division
What happens during sensitization? antigen presentation
What happens during activation? needs helper Ts to give them the ok
What is divided during division? B cells divide into plasma B cells and memory B cells
What is the job of plasma B cells? make antibodies
What is the job of memory B cells? remember what the bad guy looks like for the second encounter
What three things happens to antigens during sensitization? Taken into the B cell Processed Reappear on surface, bound to Class II MHC protein which can now be shown to a Helper T cell
Why do B cells need to get the ok from helper Ts before they can make antibodies? so that they don't start making antibodies and memory cells for the wrong things...
What do the memory Bs do? make the response bigger, faster, louder, and stronger for next time (2nd encounter)
Antibodies are also known as what? immunoglobins
each antibody has how many binding sites? Describe these sites: 2 identical ones called binding sites
What form the base of antibodies? constant segments
NAME the 5 bases/classes of antibodies: Ig... MADGE
How many segments are there are there at each specific antigen binding site? 2 (and 2 antigen binding sites for each antibody thus a total of 4)
The way antigens and antibodies react is equivalent to what other reaction in the body? enzymes and substrates
An antigen bound to its specific antibody is called a what? Antigen-Antibody Complex
What are the places on a pathogen where antibodies bind called? Epitopes
What happens when an antibody and pathogen form a complete antigen? both binding sites of the antibody are attached to the pathogen
Where are Ig-MADGE found? in body fluids
Name the two chains in an antibody: heavy chain & light chain
What are the two parts to the heavy chin? variable (superior) and constant (inferior)
What do the heavy and light chain tips form? Antigen binding site
What does the IG in an antibody base stand for? immunoglobulin
Each antibody has how many binding sites? Describe them: 2 identical binding sites called VARIABLE REGIONS
What form the bases of antibodies? Constant segments
Which antibody base is a part of the first class of antibody secreted after antigen encounter (1st!) IgM
Describe IgM antibodies: Secreted by plasma cells as single molecules and then they polymerize and circulate as five antibody starburst
Give an example of IgM antibodies: A and B antibodies in the plasma responsible for agglutination
What is the largest and most diverse class of antibodies? IgG antibodies
IgG antibodies are... MOST COMMON AND LONG TERM
whar percent of antibodies are IgGs? 80%
What are IgGs responsible for? Responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins
What kind of antibodies provides passive immunity to the baby during labor when the two bloodstreams cross through the placenta and umbilical chord? IgG antibodies
What is an example of IgG antibodies? RH antibody
IgG antibody is responsible for what condition? fetalis erythroblastosis / hemolytic disease of the newborn
IgE means..... HISTSMINE (signal that causes its release)
Where do IgEs attach? the surface of Basophils and Mast cells
What does histamine do? cytokine accelerates inflammation (causes the stuff in the street to go up into the yard)
List the 4 ways antibodies work: 1) formation of immune complex 2)Labels 3)Antitoxins 4)Opsonization
What is formation of an immune complex? linking together large numbers of antibodies to make phagocytosis easier
Describe agglutination: a type of formation of an immune complex: clumping together of incompatible erythrocytes during agglutination reaction or of bacterial to prevent their spread
What does labels mean? antibodies ID antigens for phagocytes ( go find the one with the antibody on it!)
What does the antitoxin property of antibodies mean? antibodies block toxins
What is opsonization? "orange paint" enhances phagocytosis
Primary and secondary responses to antigen exposure occur in what kind of immunity? both adaptive and innate
first exposure to an antigen produces what? initial PRIMARY response
second exposure to an antigen produces what? triggers SECONDARY response (more extensive and prolonged); memory cells already primed
Created by: smhoffman



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